Tomato Farming Step by Step
Contents in this Post
- Grown Areas:
- Tomato Farming is the world’s largest vegetable crop after potato and sweet potato, but it tops the list of canned vegetables.
- The major tomato producing Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Orissa, Tamil Nadu.
- Nutritive and Medical value:
- low in calories. About 25 calories per one medium-size tomato.
- vitamin C and vitamin A content is good for your skin.
- decrease stroke risk, may help asthma suffers.
- rich in potassium, a mineral that helps nerves and muscles communicate.
- How can grow..?
- The transplanting is done in small flat beds or in shallow furrow depending upon the availability of irrigation.
- In heavy soil it is usually transplant on ridges and during the rains also it is advantageous to plant the seedlings on ridges.
- For indeterminate varieties/hybrids, the seedlings have to be asked using Bamboo sticks of two meter length or plant in broad ride of 90 cm width and 15 cm height.
- The seedlings are plant in the furrows at a spacing of 30 cm and the plant is allowed to spread on the broad ridge.
- Varieties of Vegetable:
- Arka Saurabh, Arka Vikas, Arka Ahuti, Arka Ashish, Arka Abha, Arka Alok, HS-101, HS-102, HS-110, Co-1, Co-2, Co-3, S-12, SL 120..
- Tomato is propagate by seeds. Seed selection is an important aspect in organic tomato production.
- For raising nurseries, seeds of high yielding varieties with tolerance to pests and diseases may be use.
- They should be carefully select from certify organic farms or from own seed plot which is raised organically.
- To start with, chemically un-treat seeds from local high yielding varieties could also be use, in the absence of organically produce seeds.
- Seeds should not be treated with any chemical fungicides or pesticides.
- Suitable Soil:
- do very well on most mineral soils, but they prefer deep, well drain sandy loams.
- Upper layer of soil should be porous with little sand and good clay in the subsoil.
- Soil depth 15 to 20cm proves to be good for healthy crop.
- Deep tillage can allow for adequate root penetration in heavy clay type soils, which allows for production in these soil types.
- Tomato is a moderately tolerant crop to a wide pH range. A pH of 5.5-6.8 is prefer.
- Soils extremely high in organic matter are not recommend due to the high moisture content of this media and nutrient deficiencies. But as always, the addition of organic matter to mineral soils will increase yield.
- The land may be plough and harrowed 3 or 4 times to obtain a fine tilt.
- About 10 tones of Farm Yard Manure(FYM) or Vermicompost/ compost @ 1-1.5 per acre is apply at the last ploughing.
- Green manuring is recommend for areas with assured rainfall and also for irrigated crop.
- Beds prepare against the slope and after leveling the bed, field channels of 50 cm breadth are prepare at intervals of 1 m.
- Spacing between plants:
- The Spacing recommend for the autumn-winter crop is 75*60 cm and for the spring-summer crop 75*45 cm.
- Best Planting Season:
- best time to set out tomato plants is after danger of frost, which is usually anytime in April, May or early June.
- If you started seed indoors, the seedlings should be about 6 to 8 inches tall and harden off before transplanting outside.
Fertilizers and Nutrition Requirements:
- As the vegetable production and quality depends upon nutrient availability and fertilizer application so balance fertilizer are apply as per requirement.
- The nitrogen in adequate quantity increases vegetable quality, size, color and taste. And also increasing acidic flavor.
- Adequate amount of potassium is also require for growth, yield and quality.
- Mono Ammonium Phosphate(MAP) may be use as a starter fertilizer to supply adequate phosphorus during germination and seeding stages.
- Calcium availability is also very important to control soil pH and nutrient availability.
- Sandy soil will require a higher rate of fertilizer, and more frequent applications of these fertilizers due to increase leaching of essential nutrients.
- Irrigation/Water supply:
Irrigation should be provide once in 7-10 days depending on the soil and weather conditions.
- Despite good management practices, disease usually occur, one of the greatest challenges to organic tomato growers.
- The degree of occurrence is regionally base and largely dependent on environment conditions.
- Tomatoes are injure by pathogenic diseases cause by fungi, bacteria, as well as physiological disorders such as cat facing and blossom end rot, which are caused by environment/ a biotic stress.
- Major tomato diseases include those that attack the root system, above ground stems and foliage, and vegetable.
- Cultivation and Storage:
- Many cheery tomatoes, however, have a tendency to crack if they stay on the plant, sp they should be pick at the peak of redness, or even a tad before.