Strawberry Cultivation Information guide

By | September 7, 2018

Strawberry Cultivation

Introduction of Strawberry cultivation : This all information guide related yo Strawberry Cultivation with all needed information for your strawberry cultivation.

  • Strawberry cultivation is a very profitable agribusiness if it market well.
  • It is a very perishable fruit and that’s why farmers should take utmost care of their strawberry plants.
  • Strawberry Fragaria × ananassaDuch belongs to the family Rosaceae.
  • The cultivate strawberry was originate from the hybridization of two American species , Fragaria chiloensis Duch. and Fragaria virginianaDuch.
  • Strawberry is one of the most popular soft fruit cultivate in plains as well as in the hills.
  • Strawberries are very popular as ice-creams, cakes, milkshakes and other such desserts worldwide.
  • It is herbaceous crop with prostate growth habit, which behaves as an annual in sub-tropical region and perennial in temperature region.
  • All the cultivate varieties of strawberry are octaploid in nature.
  • The fruit is very popular owing to its nutritional quality, color, aroma, texture and of course, its taste.
  • Artificial flavoring is also use in cosmetics, hand sanitizers, candies, etc.
  • United States is the world’s largest strawberry producer follow by Turkey, Spain, Egypt, Mexico and Poland.
  • In India, strawberries are cultivated being short duration crop it is ideally suitable to the farmers for additional income.
  • It is one of the important fruit in the world.
  • It has become favorite fruit crop among the Indian growers near towns and cities, because of its remunerative prices and higher profitability, which has result a phenomenal increase in its area and production in the recent years.
  • In Satara districts, Kalimpong in West Bengal, Bangalore, Nainital and Dehradun.
  • Among these, Satara districts of Mahabaleshwar, Wai and Panchgani account for total 85% of strawberry cultivation in India.

  1. Grown Areas for Strawberry Cultivation In India:-

  • In India it is generally cultivated in the hills. Its main center of cultivated is Nainital and Dehradun in Uttar Pradesh, Bangalore, Kashmir Valley, Mahabaleshwar and Kalimpong.
  • In recent years, strawberry is being cultivated successfully in plains of Maharashtra around Pune, Nasik and Sangali towns.
  • Strawberries are grown throughout Europe, in every state of the United States, as well as in Canada and South America.
  1. Nutritive and Medical Value of Strawberry :-

  • It 1 cup fresh strawberrirs (166 grams) prevents 1 gram Protein, 23.24 milligrams Calcium, 0.63 milligrams Iron, 44.82 milligrams Potassium, 31.43 milligrams Phosphorus, 44.82 units Vitamin A, 94.12 milligrams Vitamin C.
  • Also of note, It is helpful for Cancer, Blood pressure, Stroke, Heart disease, Diabetes, Pregnancy, Depression and incorporating strawberries into your diet.
  1. How Can Strawberry Cultivation …?

  • You can buy a pot grown plant from nursery or direct buy seeds.
  • Pot-grown plants are young strawberry plants that are already establish and grown a little.
  • You can sometimes get berries the same year as you plant it, although you may need to wait a year for a full harvest.
  • Runners are generally a cheaper option.
  • These are seedlings with long roots that are taken from other strawberry plants. These may take a little longer to grow in your garden and to produce a harvest.
  • A June-bearing plant will give you the most strawberries, but it only produces berries once a year in June.
  • Purchase this variety if you’re looking to preserve or freeze your harvest.
  • There are several varieties of June-bearing strawberries.
  • These include Earliglow, Seneca, and All-star.
  • Ask the nursery or your local extension office which type is recommended for your region.
  • This plant will grow and produce a fair amount fruit in spring and autumn. You will get more harvests a year, but these will be smaller than June-bearing.
  • Varieties of ever bearing include Ever Sweet and Ozark Beauty.
  • These plants may produce strawberries throughout the year as long as the temperature is between 35–85 °F (2–29 °C), but the harvests are very small.
  • Varieties of day-neutral include Tri-Star and Tribute.
  • Propagation is done by means of runners that are form after the blooming season.
  • The plants may be allow setting as many runners as possible but not allow setting any fruits.
  • All the plants with good root system should be utilized to set a new plantation.
  • Given the best attention and care, a single plant usually produces 12 to 18 runners.
  • The land for strawberry planting should be thoroughly by deep ploughing follow by harrowing.
  • Liberal quantities of organic manure should be incorporate in the soil before plating.
  • Strawberry can be plant on flat beds, in the form of hill rows or matte rows, or it can be plant on raise beds.
  • In irrigate areas, plantings on ridges is advice.
  • In Mahabaleshwar, the usual practice is to plant on raise beds 4 x 3 meters or 4 x 4 meters.
  • The planting distance should be 45 cm from plant to plant and 60 to 75 cm. from row to row.
  • In the hills, Transplanting is done in March-April, September-October, but in the plains, the months of January-February may be utilized for this purpose.
  • At Mahabaleshwar normally strawberry is planted during November-December.
  • The plants should be set in the soil with their roots going straight down.
  • The soil around the plant should be firmly packed to exclude air.
  • The growing point of the plant should be just above the soil surface.
  • During planting, the plants should not be allow drying out and should be irrigated immediately after planting.
  • The roots of strawberry plants spread out close to the surface.
  • Therefore, the soil should be well supply with moisture, and hoeing should be done lightly and young plantation be kept weed free.

 

  1. Varieties of Strawberry in India- Strawberry Cultivation :

  • Strawberry fruit varieties in India are mostly grown hill station.
  • In recent years, strawberry is being cultivated successfully in plains of Maharashtra around Pune, Nasik and Sangali towns.
  • For the hilly areas, varieties Royal Sovereign, Srinagar and Dilpasand are suitable.
  • The variety found successful in Bangalore has been named Bangalore and which has performed well at Mahabaleshwar also.
  1. Growing Requirement for Strawberry Cultivation:

  • Strawberry thrives best in temperate climate.
  • It is a short day plant, which requires exposure to about 10 days of less than 8 hours sunshine for initiation of flowering.
  • In winter, the plants do not make any growth and remain dormant. The exposure to low temperature during this period helps in breaking dormancy of the plant.
  • In spring when the days become longer and the temperature rises.
  • The plants resume growth and begin flowering. The varieties grown in milder subtropical climate do not require chilling and continue to make some growth during winter.
  • From the standpoint of response to length of the light period, strawberries are placed in two groups.
  • First group is varieties that develop flower buds during both long and short light periods, the overbearing varieties and Second group is varieties that develop flower buds during the short light periods only, most commercial varieties.
  • Strawberry requires a well-drain medium loam soil, rich in organic matter.
  • The soil should be slightly acidic with pH from 5.7 to 6.5.
  • At higher pH root formation is poor. The presence of excessive calcium in the soil causes yellowing of the leaves.
  • In light soils and in those rich in organic matter, runner formation is better.
  • Strawberry should not be cultivated in the same land for a number of years.
  • It is preferable to plant it in green manure field.
  • Alkaline soils and soils infect with nematodes should be avoid.
  • If possible avoid soils that have previously grown these crops are tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, capsicums and ginger.
  • The roots of strawberry plants spread out close to the surface.
  • Therefore, the soil should be well supplied with moisture, and hoeing should be done lightly and young plantation be kept weed free.
  • In cold climate the soil is cover with mulch in winter to protect the roots from cold injury.
  • The mulch keeps the fruits free from soil, reduces decay of fruits, conserves soil moisture, lowers soil temperature in hot weather, protects flowers from frost in mild climates and protects plants from freezing injury in cold climates.
  • Several kinds of mulches are use, but the commonest one is straw mulch.
  • The name strawberry has been derived from this fact.
  • Black alkathine mulch is also use to cover the soil.
  • It saves irrigation water, prevents the growth of weeds and keeps the soil temperature high.
  1. Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Strawberry Cultivation :

  • Strawberry requires moderate amounts of nitrogen.
  • Addition of organic matter to the soil, in the form of 50 tons of Farm Yard manure per hectare is highly desirable.
  • It improves the water holding capacity of the soil and also gives better runner formation.
  • Farm yard manure may be supplement by chemical fertilizers to make up the total quantity of nitrogen from 84 to 112 kg per hectare, Phosphorus 56 to 84 kg per hectare, and Potash 56 to 112 kg per hectare.
  • The Phosphate fertilizer should be incorporated into the soil before plantings.
  • The nitrogenous fertilizer is applying in two doses (Three weeks after planting and again at the time of flowering) and potash at the time of flowering only.
  • Application of adequate amounts of nitrogen gives higher yield of early berries.
  • In the initial years of planting, intercrops like groundnut, minor millets, linseed and gram should be grown easy.
  1. Water supply/Irrigation in Strawberry Cultivation :

  • Since strawberry is relatively shallow-root, it is susceptible to conditions of drought.
  • Planting early in autumn allows the plants to make good vegetative growth before the onset of winter.
  • However, in this case it is necessary to ensure that newly plant runners are irrigate frequently after planting, otherwise the mortality of the plants becomes high.
  • During September and October, irrigation should be given twice a week if there is no rain.
  • It may be reduce to weekly intervals during November.
  • In December and January, irrigation may be given once every fortnight.
  • Maybe when fruiting starts, the irrigation frequency ought to again be increased. At this stage frequent irrigation gives larger fruits.
  1. Pests in Strawberry Cultivation :

Sliver Leaf:
  • Leaves develop a slivery sheen, cut branches revel red staining. Prune from the end of June until the end of August or in rarely spring. Keep pruning cuts to a minimum, pruning regularly so cut surfaces are small.
  • Bacterial Canker: This disease occurs of sunken, dead areas of bark often accompany by gummy ooze. It can kill off entire branches. Also burn or landfill the pruning.
Glasshouse red spider:
  • Leaves become mottle, pale and cover in webbing on which the mitts can be clearly seen, leaves also drop prematurely. Use biological control in the greenhouse.
  • Birds: Birds in Pigeons mostly affects the apricot fruits. It can cause an array of problems including eating seedlings, buds, leaves, fruits and vegetables. Avoid this problem by protect the plants from birds by covering netting.
Drills:
  • These are a worm’s type. It is attack by drill device galleries that trace the host trees.
  • Big-headed Worm: It is a pest that affects many fruit trees. The main damages are cause by the larvae that build galleries in weakling the plant roots which eventually die.
  • To avoid this pest use as biological traps feronomas.
  1. Diseases in Strawberry Cultivation :

Rust:
  • A disease cause primarily by fungi of the genus Puccini and Melampsora, which use the excess humidity to thrive. It means as spots of orange or brown on the leaves. Then a yellow color in the part of the beam.
Moniliosis or Flower Blight:
  • This is affect flowers that dry. Also produce a blacking of the fruits that are dry on the branches without falling. Apricot tree is infecting by the appearance of cankers on the branches and the sticky liquid oozing out of some parts of the plants.
Powdery Mildew:
  • This Disease is caused by fungus or Podosphaea Sphaerotheca rate. The first attacks the fruit in summer and leaves in spring. It is produce by white spider web on fruits, leaves and stems. Over time these stains by infection with order plants that keep fungus in the winter and spread their spoors in spring.
  • Watering the tree itself will help prevent the disease because the water may be able to clean the spores.
  • In some location using a biological fungicide call AQ10.
  • It is the parasitic fungus Ampelomyces quisqualis that feeds at the expense of podosphaera.
  • Do not use sulfur on Apricot tress.
Gummosis:
  • It is a gummy substance oozing from the bark. Also causes from diseases to excessive pruning, failure of any component in the substrate, adverse weather conditions, injuries etc.
  • In many cases the gumming is an adaptation of the plant itself that covers wounds to prevent invasion of external agents.
  • To avoid such an event should be sought and address the cause that produce it.
Eutipiosis:
  • Most common disease also attacks the vine are often sudden fractures of branches in old trees and the sudden wilting leaves.
  • It is a cause that produces gummier in the wounds heal pruning.
  • Around the same is in general a lot of resin oozing chancre.
  • Then this disease center of the plant and ends up killing her.
  • Try to do the pruning day days to prevent the growth of these fungi and seek to reduce pruning old tress.
  • The solution is to use a fungicide paint that covers the injuries on the tree after pruning.
Peach Blight:
  • It is affects by the almond and peach trees but sometime affects in the plum and apricots Tress.
  • It is produce by Fusicoccum amygdale that cause brown and elongate cankers’ at the base of the knots and yolks branches of the year, lead to the strangling of them and then death by the action of the toxins of the fungus.
  • Also attacks the leaves large brown spots.
  • Infection occurs through spores spread by rain penetrating wounds more or less large each of the parts of the plant or directly the young trees.
  • The solution of this disease removes the affect part of the plant and the use of Fungicides.

 

  1. Inter-cropping in Strawberry Cultivation :

  • For good plant growth, the weeding should be done to keep away the weeds.
  • During Pre bearing period short growing crops like Bush Beans, Chives, Lettuce, Onions, Spinach, Squash, Borage, Caraway, and Sage.
  • Also Green manure crops like sun hemp, green gram, cowpea, peas, beans etc are grow.
  • Point that intercropping into the soil during the monsoon period.
  • Timely intercultural and hand weeding should be done with hand tools for initial 5 years.
  1. Storage/Harvest of Strawberry :

  • The fruit ripens during late February to April in the plains and during May and June at high elevations like Mahabaleshwar, Nainital and Kashmir.
  • For local market the fruit should be harvest when fully ripe, but for transport to distant markets, it should be harvest when still firm and before colour has developed fully all over the fruit.
  • Harvesting should be done preferably daily.
  • Since fruit is highly perishable, it is pack in flat shallow containers of various types (cardboard, bamboo, paper trays etc.) with one or two layers of fruits.
  • Harvesting should be done early in the morning in dry conditions.
  • Washing the fruit bruises it and spoils its luster.
  • The yield varies according to season and locality.
  • A yield of 20 to 25 tons per hectare is excellent, though yields up to 50 tons per hectare have been report under ideal conditions.
  • Strawberries are highly perishable and hence a great deal of care in harvesting and handling as well as its marketing also requires being organics carefully.
  • Usually the fruit is picking in the early morning and sent to the market in the afternoon of the same day or is picking in the late afternoon, store overnight in a cool place, and sent to market the following morning.

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