SAPOTA FRUIT CULTIVATION
Contents in this Post
- SAPOTA FRUIT CULTIVATION
- INTRODUCTION of Sapota Fruit Cultivation
- IMPORTANCE AND USES of Sapota Fruit :
- ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION of Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Climate and soil requirements for Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Species, types and cultivars in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- CULTIVARS in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- PROPAGATION of Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- PLANTING in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Manuring in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Irrigation in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Inter crop in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Pruning in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Harvesting and yield of Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- POST-HARVEST HANDLING AND STORAGE in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Pests in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Diseases in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
INTRODUCTION of Sapota Fruit Cultivation
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In India, Sapota Fruit cultivation was taken up for the first time in Maharashtra in 1898 in a village named Gholkward. India is considered to be the largest producer of Sapota Fruit in the world though.
Sapota Fruit Cultivation is considered to be a minor crop in India , It is 65,000ha in 5.7 lakh tones. Karnataka+6000ha. In India, Sapota Fruit is commercially grown in Karnataka, Gujarat, AP, Westbangal, Maharashtra and Tamilnadu.
IMPORTANCE AND USES of Sapota Fruit :
- Sapota fruit is good source of sugars, protein, fat, fiber and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). Is a delicious dessert fruit.
- The latex from stems and immature fruits is used in the preparation of chewing gum.
- Fruits can be dried and made into nutritious powder which can be used in Milk shakes and sweets.
- In countries (Indonesia) young leafy shoots are used in salads or as vegetable.
- Sapota is supposed to be medicinal also seeds as diuretic, bark as tonic, antipyretic,febrifuge and in curing biliousness and febrile attacks.
ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION of Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Sapota is native of tropical America and is believed to have originated in South Mexico or Central America.
- Cultivated in West Indies, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Srilanka and India.
Climate and soil requirements for Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Sapota is a tropical fruit and can be grown up to 1200m.
- But at higher altitudes and in subtropics it produces only one crop an year with reduction in quality and quantity.
- Annual rainfalls 125-250cm are best.
- Optimum temperature range is 110C to 340C.
- High temperature 410C causes drying of stigmatic surface.
- Dry and strong winds also damage Sapota.
- Sapota can be grown in a wide variety of soils.
- Deep Sandy loams or alluvial soils or medium black soils are best.
- Calcareous soils (pH 6-8) give good crops of Sapota.
Species, types and cultivars in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Sapota cultivars are grouped into 4 types based on nature of branches and colour of foliage as follows.
- Trees with erect growing habit: Branches appearing in whorls, leafy dark green, broad and oval, fruits large and superior.
- With drooping habit: Branches in whorls, leaves light green narrow and elliptical, fruit small, inferior.
- With spreading habit: Branches irregular, leaves dark green, broad and oval, fruits medium to large, superior.
- Trees with spreading habit: but with inferior quality fruits.
CULTIVARS in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Kalipatti-commercially grown in Maharashtra, Gujarath, North Karnataka. Has spreading branches, oval shaped fruits, fruits appear singly-superior.
- Chhatri: Similar to kalipatti with droping branches in whorls.
- Dhola Diwani: Whitish oval fruits with superior quality
- Long: Has narrow and small leaves, fruits long poor bearer.
- Bhuri or Bhuripatti Medium bearer, fruits large superior.
- Jingar: Medium sized tree, small leaves, fruits in clusters.
- Vanjeet:Slow growing ,knots on stems shy bearer,superior.
- Pala:Popular in AP and TN fruits small, oval, heavy bearer in clusters.
- Kirthibarthi:Popular in AP. Fruits small to medium with 4-5 ridges, oval, superior, withstands long transport.
- Dwarapudi:Popular in AP. fruits round like cricket ball, superior.
- Cricket ball: Popular in TN, Karnatataka, Maharastra, WB AP. Fruits large, round, superior, shybearer.
- Oval: Fruits small to medium, oval, inferior shy bearer.
- Vanivalasa: AP, fruits oval, medium sized, medium quality.
- Calcatta Round: WB, Karnataka, AP fruits large, medium quality.
- Jonnavalasa-1: AP fruits medium, ovate, superior and no ridges
- Jonnavalasa-2: AP, fruits medium, ovate, depression at stalk end, whitish flakes on skin eight ridges superior.
- Baramasi: WB, Bihar, UP fruits medium, round medium quality.
- Pot Sapota: Fruits small, oval, superior , bears in pots itself
- Gavarayya: AP, TN fruits small with varied shoulders 8-10 ridges, superior.
- Thagarampudi:TN fruits medium sized, round or oval, superior, good for export.
- Ayyangare: TN fruits medium to large, round or obovate rose scented, superior.
Sapota Fruit Hybrids Variety
|Sapota varieties/ hybrids developed in India Variety||Parentage||Shape||TSS (Brix)||Fruit weight (g)|
|CO-1||Cricket Ball x Oval||Oval||18||125|
|CO-2||Clonal selection from Baramasi||Obovate to round||23||200|
|CO-3||Cricket Ball x Vanivallasa||Oval||24.2||–|
|PKM-1||Selecation from Guthi||Oblong||NA||NA|
|PKM-2||Guthi x Kirthabarti||Obong||NA||NA|
|PKM-3||Kalipatti x Cricket Ball||Oblong||NA||NA|
|PKM-4||Clone of PKM||–||–||–|
|DHS-1||Kalipatti x Cricket Ball||Oblong||25||150|
|DHS-2||Kalipatti xCricket Ball||Round||23||180|
PROPAGATION of Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Commercially propagated by grafting on Rayan or khirni (Manilkara hexandra) sroot tocks.
- Other root stocks used are: 1.Sapota seedlings, 2.Adams apple (M. kauki), 3.Mahua (M.latifolia), 4. Mee Tree (Bassia Longifolia), 5. Star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito) and 6. Miracular fruit (Sideroxylon dulcifieum).
- Approach grafting during February (Jan-March) and soft wood grafting during: May-July ; Air layering using 10,000PPM (1BA+NAA) gives good rooting; Budding during May also gives success.
PLANTING in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Spacing is 8-10m; 1m cube pits are dug. Pits are to be filled with mixture of FYM and soils with 1.2 kg of bone meal.
- High density planting with 5mx5m spacing improves yield.
- It is better to have a wind break around the Sapota plot.
- Best season is monsoon season.
Manuring in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Bearing tree of 11 years is given 400gN, 260gP and 450gK per year in addition to 40kg FYM and graded doses are applied from the beginning according to the growth of the plant.
- Application of more ‗N‘ is reported to increase the yield. Manuring should be done in 2 spilt doses coinciding with the mansoons.
Irrigation in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Sapota can tolerate drought to some extent but irrigations help in improving the yield.
- Regular irrigations should be given from planting till the plant establishes well.
- Later irrigations may be according to need and soil and weather conditions.
- Insufficient irrigations result in dropping of flowers.
- Drip irrigation can be more useful.
Inter crop in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Inter crops like banana, papaya, leguminous vegetables can be grown profitably during the pre-bearing period.
- Weeding should be regular.
- Spraying SADH 100ppm gives good fruit set and (Planofix) NAA 300ppm gives fruit retension. Sprayings are done twice before flowering and again at pea stage.
Pruning in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Better to remove the lower most branches on the trunk up to 60-90cm as they will be touching the ground and mostly unproductive.
- Stock sports should be removed from time to time.
- No regular pruning is needed for Sapota.
Harvesting and yield of Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Sapota may start bearing 2nd or 3rd year but commercial yield can be obtained from 7th year onwards.
- Sapota takes about 7-10moths from fruitset to maturity depending upon the cultivar season and locality.
- Best symptoms of maturity are;
- Milky latex on scratching will be reduced & shows an yellow streak than green streak.
- Brown scaly material gets reduced.
- Dried stigma at the tip of the fruit drops easily.
- Develops dull orange or potato colour
Fruits should be harvested with stalk intact.
- Peak harvesting periods are Jan-Feb and May-June in Maharashtra and March-May and Sept-October in Karnataka and AP.
- Sapota normally produces fruit throughout the year.
- 03 year old plants gives 100 fruits; 5 year-250 fruits;7 year-700, fruits; 8 year-800 fruits;10 year- 1000 fruits; 11 year-1500 fruits;15 year-2000 fruits; 30 year-2500-3000 fruits/plant/year.
- Large sized cultivars like Cricket ball, Calcutta round give lower number of fruits but will be sold at higher price. The average yield is 15-20 ton/ha.
POST-HARVEST HANDLING AND STORAGE in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
- Fruits ripen after harvest in about 4-13 days depending upon cultivar.
- Ripening can be hastened by treating with ethrel (250-750ppm).
- Between 12-140C fruits ripen slowly and keep well for about 5 weeks
- Ripe fruits can be stored at 2-30C and 85-90% RH for 6 weeks and firm fruits for 8 weeks at 3 to 50C and 85-95% RH.
Pests in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
Stem borer (Isocrata tetraonis):
The grub of this small beetle bores into bark of the Sapota trunk and feeds on the living tissue inside the bark. The chewed bark is seen on the hole.
- Control measures:
- Kill the insect by thrusting a stiff wire into the tunnel.
- Plug the hole with a wad of cotton in kerosene at 0.1 percent and plaster with wet mud. This treatment creates suffocation inside the hole or tunnel which results in death of the insect inside.
The tiny caterpillar of a greyish moth mines into the surface of young leaves. Affected leaves curl up, mines are seen on the surface of leaves and sometimes caterpillars are found inside the mines. Later on, affected leaves get destroyed, dry up and fall.
- Control measures: Spray once or twice Dimethate (30ml in 18 liters of water) or Malathion (30ml in 18 liters of water)
Mealy bug: (Phenacoccus icerjoides)
It is sucking insect. It is a small, over in shape with a cottony white, waxy on the under surface of leaves and base of the fruit near the fruit stalks. They suck the sap and secrete large quantities of sugary sub stones. Leaves have a block coating which gives thema sickly appearance.
- Spray dimethoate at the rate of 30ml in 18 liters of water.
- Try to keep free sapota plantation from red onts because these help in distributing mealy bugs from one tree to another. Red ants are effectively controlled with a dusting of a mixture of BHC 5 percent with sulphur in the proportion of 2:1.
Scale insects: (Pulvinaria psidil)
They suck the sap by infesting along the sides of midrib and surface of leaves and twinges. These scales are green or grown in colour and oval shaped. Control measures: Spray Dimethoate or Malathion at 30ml in 18 liters of water.
Fruit borer (Virachola isocrates)
Borer attacks on fruits and some times buds which can easily be detected by seeing the latex which comes out on the surface of the infested fruits, the latex later crystallizes. Control measures:
- Spray 0.05 Malathion
- Spray 0.01% Fenvalerate/0.01% endosufan.
Diseases in Sapota Fruit Cultivation:
Leafspot: (Phoecophleospora indica)
The causal fungus results in dark brown, the adjacent spots on leaves. When infection is severe, the adjacent spots become large irregular whitish patches. In severe caser, the defoliation of leaves may be noticed.
- Spray -78 @0.2% at an interval of 30 days.
- Grow resistant varieties like Co-1, Cricket Ball. The varieties Co-2 & Kalipatti are torerant, but Calcutta round are susceptible.
Sooty mould is incited by Capnodiuor: The causal fungal disease develops on the honey like excretion by scale insects and mealy bugs.
- Spray Zineb @ 40 g in 18 liters water.
- Spray starch solution (100 g M in 18 liters of water). Starch forms this flakes and drop.
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