This Information Guide related to Radish Farming. If you are interested in Radish Farming please read this information guide.
Introduction of Radish Farming
- Radish is a member of the Cruciferae mustard family.
- Radish is grown for its tender tuberous roots which are eaten raw as a salad or as a cooked vegetable.
- It has a unique pungent flavor.
- It is also used in Parathas which are taken with curd for breakfast in north India.
- Cooling effect, prevents constipation and increases appetite and is more nutritious when cooked with leaves.
- Young leaves are also cooked as a vegetable.
- It is recommended for patients suffering from piles, liver troubles, jaundice etc. Juice of fresh leaves issued as diuretic and laxative.
- Radish is a good source of vitamin-C and minerals.
- Rat-tail radish (R. sativus var. caudatus), which is similar to a common radish, is grown for its long slender pods which are used as a salad or cooked vegetable.
- It will not produce fleshy root as in radish.
- Radish is grown for its tender tuberous roots which are eaten raw salad or cooked as a vegetable.
- Root, leaves, flower, and pods are active against gram-positive bacteria.
- The roots are said to be useful in luminary complaints and piles.
- Radish is annual or biennial depending on the purpose for which it is sown.
- Radish is a good source of vitamin C contains 15 – 40 mg per 100g of edible portion and supplies varieties of mineral.
Grown Areas of Radish Farming In India
- In India, major Radish Farming states are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Punjab, Assam Gujarat, and West Bengal.
Nutritive and Medical Value of Radish
- Insoluble fiber helps keep the digestive system healthy by adding bulk to stools and promoting regular bowel movements.
- Radish is known to control damage to our red blood cells, and in the process also increases oxygen supply to the blood.
- If you eat it as part of your daily salad intake, without going overboard.
- Radish also provides your system with ample roughage and fibers, therefore improving your digestion.
- It also regulates bile production, safeguards your liver and the gallbladder, and is great for taking care of water retention.
- Radishes are a good source for anthocyanins that keep our hearts functioning properly, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
- Plus they are high on vitamin C, folic acid, and flavonoids too.
- Radish also provides your body with potassium, which can help lower your blood pressure, and keep your blood flow in control, especially if you are known to suffer from hypertension.
- According to Ayurvedic, radish is believed to have a cooling effect on the blood.
- Red radishes are packed with Vitamins E, A, C, B6, and K.
- Plus it’s high on antioxidants, fiber, zinc, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, copper, calcium, iron and manganese.
- And each of these is known to keep our body in good working condition.
- This root vegetable is not only good for your digestive system, but it also helps to fix acidity, obesity, gastric problems, and nausea, among others.
How Can Grow Radish Farming?
- Seeds of European varieties and produced in hills and tropical types in plains.
- As it belongs to family Cruciferous, it is cross-pollinated and pollination is done by bees.
- Hence, provide isolation distance as in cabbage or cauliflower. Wild mustard, wild turnip, and wild radish should also be removed from the field.
- Roots left in situ, without harvesting, produce maximum quantity of seeds.
- One additional earthling up is required during flowering and fruiting stages to prevent lodging of plants.
- For producing quality seeds, roots are pulled out and true-to-type roots alone are replanted.
- The usual practice is to remove ½ to ¾ of lower root portion before planting.
- However, it reduces yield considerably. Hence, replanting roots with minimum injury is advisable for high yield.
- Seed yield varies from 600-800 kg/ha. The radish crop can be sown on ridges and furrows or on flatbeds too.
- The distance between ridges and furrows or on flatbeds depends upon variety.
- The temperate varieties and early varieties are sown at a closer spacing.
- Radish can be sown from July- January.
- However, all varieties of radish may not perform well in all the months.
- During hot weather or in rainy season tropical varieties can be grown.
- The tropical varieties were sown after November wilt bolt.
- The radishes are also sown in Kharif season but the root gives good is inferior.
- Radish is sown on ridges and furrows opened at 45 cm distance and seeds dibbled at 8 to 10 cm in a row.
- Surface sowing or sowing at depth of 2- 3 cm is advisable for proper germination.
- On flat beds sowing at 15 X, 15 cm can be followed. 8 -10 kg of seed required for the one-hectare area.
Varieties of Radish in India
- The crops varieties in Hills like White Icicle, Scarlet Globe, Rapid Red, White Tipped, etc are common cultivate Radish Varieties in Farming.
- In Planes like Co 1, Pusa Chetki, Pusa Rashmi, Pusa Deshi, etc are grown in India.
Growing Requirement in Radish Farming
- Radish is a quick growing cool season root vegetable.
- The seed will germinate in 3 to 4 days with soil temperatures of 18 to 30 C with good moisture.
- The minimum temperature for germination is 5 C, the optimum temperature for germination is 30 C.
- The maximum temperature for germination is 35 C.
- Germination rates decline sharply when the soil temperature falls below 13 C.
- The best quality and root shape are obtained when the crop grows and matures at moderate temperatures 10 to 18 C in intermediate to short day lengths.
- Radish remains in prime condition for only a few days.
- Roots of globe varieties tend to elongate and develop poor shape in hot weather when the tops also grow taller and larger than in cool weather.
- Long days induce flowering or seed stalks and with warm weather, the seed stalk may develop so rapidly that no edible root is formed.
- Radishes become more pungent in hot weather.
- Roots remain in marketable condition only a short time before becoming pithy.
- Growth must be continuous and rapid for good quality.
Suitable soil/Land Preparation in Radish Farming
- Being a root crop, radish requires loose and friable soil, rich in organic matter.
- IN plains of North India, radish can be grown throughout the year.
- Since temperate radish tolerates frost, it is successfully grown between September and January in plains.
- Tropical types are sown from the middle of September onwards.
- If sowing is done later than November, it bolts earlier.
- The land is plowed to a fine tilt and ridges of 25 cm height and furrows are prepared at 30-45 cm distance.
- Seeds are sown continuously in ridges.
- Spacing depends on the type of varieties.
- Indian tropical cultivars take longer time and grow larger.
- The distance between two rows is kept at 45 cm and seeds are sown continuously on ridges.
- Later they are thinned to keep a distance of 6-8 cm in a row.
- European types will be ready in 25-30 days and are sown at a closer spacing of 5-10 cm x 3 cm.
- Accordingly, seed rate varies from 10.0 kg for large varieties to 12.0 kg for temperate European types.
- For round cultivars, sow seeds on the soil surface and put a layer of soil above it.
- Seeds of large cultivars are sown 1.5-3.0 cm deep.
- Usually, seeds are sown in a phased manner to get a continuous supply of roots.
Best Planting season for Radish Farming
- Mainly the optimum time of seed sowing varies greatly depending upon climate, varieties and their temperature requirement for growth.
- Mostly, North India, radish can be grown throughout the year.
- Radish can be grown from July- January.
Spacing Between Plants for Radish Farming
- The optimal plant population per acre depends upon the plant’s growth habit like compact, medium or spreading, sizes like small, medium or large at maturity, the vigor of specific cultivars, climate, soil moisture and nutrient availability, soil productivity, and intended use.
- Accurate spacing is obtained from sized seeds and precision seeders.
Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Radish Farming
- To obtain a good yield of excellent quality roots, judicious application of manures and fertilizers is recommended.
- Radish is a short duration crop.
- Do not apply fresh and unrecompensed manure in the field as it results in forking and miss- sharpens roots.
- Application of 50 kg Nitrogen, 25 kg Phosphorus is recommended by PKV, Akola.
- Half of the dose of nitrogen applied is 20- 30 days after sowing.
Water supply/Irrigation in Radish Farming
- Radish requires a steady and continuous supply of soil moisture for better root growth.
- This also helps in the production of tender and attractive root growth.
- At the time of sowing, there should be sufficient moisture.
- So irrigate field before sowing.
- In dry weather frequent irrigation is necessary.
- Water stress makes roots rough and pungent.
- In winter season irrigation at an interval of 6-8 days are given.
- Radish requires plenty of water from sowing to harvest.
- For rapid germination and subsequent production of roots, soil should be moist and loose.
- So irrigate immediately after sowing.
- If irrigation is restricted, roots will be tougher and pungent, making it unfit for marketing.
- Leaf Spot
- Squash bug
Inter-cropping in Radish Farming
- Two or three hoeing may be done during the early stage of growth to keep down the weeds and to conserve soil moisture.
- Two or three plants are kept at one place in the hills or beds by thinning the extra plant.
Storage/Harvest in Radish Farming
- Depending upon the cultivar, roots will be ready for harvest in 25-55 days after sowing
- If harvesting is delayed, roots will become bitter and pithy.
- Harvesting is done manually.
- A light irrigation is given before pulling out roots.
- After harvesting, roots are washed, made into bundles and marketed along with a few leaves.
- A variety yields 5-7 t/ha while in Indian cultivars, it varies from 15-20 t/ha.
- Radish roots can be stored for 2-3 days under room temperature without impairing quality.
- Roots can be stored for about 2 months at 0 C and 90-95% RH.
- Depending upon varieties roots become ready for harvesting in 40- 45 days after sowing.
- Early rapid maturing varieties become ready for harvesting even at 25- 30 days of sowing.
- Harvesting radish at the proper stage of maturity. Delay in harvesting result in pithiness and bitterness in radish roots.
- Given light irrigation before harvesting to facilitate easy pulling of roots, the roots along with leaves easy pulling of roots.
- The roots along with leaves are washed cleaned and tied in bunches.
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