Pineapple Farming Information Guide

By | September 23, 2018

Pineapple Farming

This information guide is regarding the Pineapple Farming. If you are interested in Pineapple Farming please read this full article and after reading this information guide of Pineapple Farming in your mind any question regarding the Pineapple Farming please comments below we will help you surely. So let’s talk about Pineapple Farming…

Introduction of Pineapple Farming

  • Indian Pineapple ‘The King of Fruits’ is one of the commercially important fruit crops of India.
  • It is one of the choicest fruit all over the world because of its pleasant taste and flavor.
  • Pineapple is a good source of vitamin A and B and fairly rich in vitamin C and minerals like calcium, magnesium, potassium, and iron.
  • It is also a source of Bromeliad, a digestive enzyme.
  • Pineapple cultivation is a profitable business if you know how to grow pineapple especially since it does not suffer too many diseases.
  • Pineapple plantation can be a very good source of income if maintained properly.
  • Discover how to find success in pineapple farming.
  • In addition to being eaten fresh, the fruit can also be can and processed in different forms.
  • Pineapples are one of the most favored fruits and rank next to mango.
  • It is known for its rich, sweet taste and spiny texture. Pineapple is a delicious fruit- spiny and thorny on the outside, sweet and delicious on the inside.
  • The fruit is native to Caribbean, Central America, and South America. It is highly nutritious and enjoyed by everyone worldwide.
  • In India, pineapples grow abundantly in Karnataka, Kerala, West Bengal, and North Eastern parts, Bihar, Goa, and Karnataka.
  • Pineapple is botanically called Ananas comosus and is a herbaceous plant growing up to a height of 1.5 meters.
  • The stem is stocky with waxy, thick leaves. Once mature, the plant produces as many as 200 flowers which later coalesce together forming the spiny fruit- pineapple.

Grown Areas of Pineapple Farming In India

  • Commercial cultivation of pineapple in India started only about four decades back.
  • So although the conditions prevailing in large parts of India are ideal for pineapple cultivation, it does not hold any position of importance among the major fruits cultivated in our country.
  • It is being cultivated in high rainfall and humid coastal regions of peninsular India and hilly areas of North-Eastern region.
  • Of late, it has been shown that pineapple can also be grown commercially in the interior plains with medium rainfall and supplementary protective irrigation.
  • It is grown in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, West Bengal, Kerala, Karnataka and Goa on a large scale, whereas in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh on a small scale.
  • The congenial humid climate has favored the cultivation of pineapple and the finest quality ‘Mauritius Pineapple’ comes from Kerala.

Varieties of Pineapple in India

  • The most popular commercial pineapple variety in India is Giant Kew.
  • Other important verities are Queen, Kew, Mauritius, Charlotte, Rothchild, Jaldhup, Desi, Lakhat, etc. Qualitatively, Queen is the outstanding table variety used mostly for preparing Juices, concentrates, squashes and pulps.

Nutritive and Medical Value of Pineapple Fruit

  • Eating fruits and vegetables of all types have long been associated with a reduced risk of many lifestyles-relate health conditions.
  • Many studies have suggested that increasing consumption of plant foods like pineapples decreases the risk of obesity, overall mortality, diabetes, and heart disease.
  • It also promotes a healthy complexion and hair, increased energy, and an overall lower weight.
  • The risks of developing asthma are lower in people who consume a high amount of certain nutrients.
  • Increasing potassium intake by consuming high potassium fruits and vegetables can help with lowering blood pressure.
  • A high potassium intake is associated with a 20 percent decreased the risk of dying from all causes.
  • The fiber, potassium, and vitamin C content in pineapple all promote heart health.
  • The antioxidant vitamin C, when eaten in its natural form or applied topically, can help to fight skin damage caused by the sun and pollution, reduce wrinkles, and improve overall skin texture.
  • Vitamin C also plays a vital role in the formation of collagen, the support system of the skin.

How Can Pineapple Farming?

  • The choice of planting material is crucial as the performance of the plants develop depends on the materials plant.
  • It is always advisable to use uniform size material of monotype for getting uniform growth of the plants, enabling uniform cultural operations and getting a harvest at 1 time from such a field.
  • Hence the selection of right type and size of planting material is essential for commercial planting.
  • Pineapple is commonly propagated from suckers or slips.
  • Suckers arising from the underground parts of the plant are commonly used.
  • Slips arise from the fruiting stem and from the crown on top of the fruit. After the fruit is harvested, stalks are cut into discs and used for propagation.
  • Plants grown from suckers produce fruits in about 18 months, whereas those from slips and suckers propagate from disc cuttings take over two years.
  • Among the types and sizes of propagates tire, slips and suckers weighing around 350 and 450 g respectively were found best for yield and quality for Kew pineapple.
  • Mass multiplication of propagation material is vital to bring the fresh area under cultivation.
  • This is possible only when a number of plantlets can be obtained from a single mother plant, unlike a few suckers or slips.
  • It has been found possible to use leaf cuttings from the crowns of Kew pineapple for multiplication of planting material.
  • Total 10-15 leaf cutting are made from each crown.
  • However, these cuttings will take even more time than crowns for flowering and thus are only recommend where planting material is not available.
  • Suckers or slips are first cure by stripping off the lower leaves, followed by drying in the sun, or in partial shade for three to four days before planting.
  • They are planting either in flatbeds, where there is no danger of water stagnating or in shallow trenches, which are filling as the suckers grow and develop.
  • Care should be taken to see that they grow and develop.
  • Care should be taken to see that the bud or `heart’ of the suckers does not get buries.
  • A planting density of 43,500 plants per hectare can be followed, keeping a distance of 30 cm between plant and plant, 60 cm between rows and 90 cm between beds.
  • The rainy season is the best time for planting.
  • The system of planting will vary depending on the topography of land and rainfall.
  • There are 4 planting systems in vogue, viz. flat-bed planting, furrow planting, contour planting, and trench planting.
  • The field is preparing by plowing, harrowing, etc., before planting.
  • In the hills, proper terracing is a necessity.
  • According to the Department of Agricultural Research and Education, ICAR, Government of India, the population density of 44,444 plants/ha with a spacing of 30cm x 60cm x 90cm is best for getting more yields under rainfed conditions.
  • Pineapples are cultivated in trenches.

Growing Requirement in Pineapple Farming

  • Pineapple is a humid tropical plant.
  • It grows well, both in the plains and also at elevations not exceeding 900 meters.
  • It tolerates neither very high temperature nor frost.
  • Pineapple usually flowers from February to April and the fruits are ready from July to September.
  • Sometimes, off-season flowers appear and they produce fruits in September-December.
  • Pineapple grows in almost any type of soil, provided it is free-draining.
  • Slightly acidic soil with a PH range of 5.5 to 6.0 is considered optimum for pineapple cultivation.
  • The soil should be well drained and light in texture.
  • Heavy clay soil is not suitable. It can grow in sandy, alluvial or laterite soil.
  • Areas with a heavy rainfall are best for pineapple growth.
  • Optimum rainfall is 1500mm per year although it can grow in areas having 500mm to 5550mm of rainfall.
  • The fruit grows well near the seacoast as well as in inland, so long as temperature ranges from 15.5 to 32.50 C. Low temperature, bright sunshine and total shade are harmful.
  • It can grow successfully up to 1525m above sea level.
  • A humid climate with ample rainfall is ideal for pineapple plantation.
  • This type of climate is found in coastal regions.
  • The optimal temperature must be between 22 and 32⁰C.
  • While the leaves grow best at 32⁰C, roots grow best at 29⁰C.
  • Pineapple crops do not grow at temperatures below 20⁰C and above 36⁰C.
  • There must be a difference of 4⁰C between day and night temperatures.
  • However, a high temperature at night is not desirable for pineapples.
  • Though ample rainfall is well-suited for pineapples, it grows best at 100-150 cm rainfall.
  • Pineapples are planted 12-15 months before the flowering season.
  • Flowering season occurs between the months of December and March. It varies between regions.
  • Generally, the planting time depends on the onset of monsoon, its intensity, precipitation, etc.
  • It is planted during April- June period in Karnataka and Kerala while in Assam it is done during August to October months.
  • Pineapple cultivation is avoided during the heavy rainy period.
  • Pineapples need slightly acidic soil with a pH between 5.5 and 6.0.

Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Pineapple Farming

  • Pineapple is a shallow feeder with high nitrogen and potassium requirement.
  • Since these nutrients are prone to heavy losses in the soil, practices relating to a time of application and the form of fertilizer determine their efficient usage.
  • Experts based on research trials conducted at a number of locations advise giving N and K2O at 12 g each per plant.
  • There is no need for P application.
  • However, if the soils are poor in P, 4 g of P2O5/plant can be applied.
  • Nitrogen should be applied in 6 split doses.
  • The first dose of N can be given 2 months after planting and the last dose 12 months after planting.
  • Potash should be given in 2 split doses.
  • Entire P and half the dose of K can be given at the time of planting and the remaining K, 6 months after planting.
  • Application of fertilizer under rainfed conditions has to be done when moisture is available.
  • Sugar content should be assessed in the field prior to harvesting to ensure adequate sugar development.
  • A minimum of 10% is generally required although this may vary with the market.
  • Sugar content is not always related to the color stage as agronomic and production factors will affect sugar development.
  • For the export market where sea-shipment for seven to fourteen days is used, fruits should be harvested at CS1, where the fruits show no yellow color development on the eyes.
  • For air-freighted shipments, although generally cost prohibitive, harvesting can be carried out at CS2 to 3.
  • Those harvested at more advanced stages are more susceptible to mechanical damage and over-ripeness.
  • Fruit maturity can also be assessed on random samples by determination of the flesh condition.
  • This is carried out by slicing the fruit horizontally at the point of largest diameter; in fruit for sea-shipment export; the fruit should show a limited development of translucent areas.
  • Where more than half of the area is translucent, the fruit is considered beyond optimum maturity.
  • Pineapples harvested by hand are snapped from the stalk using a downward motion.
  • The fruit should be placed in field crates and while in the field, left in shaded conditions.

Water supply/Irrigation in Pineapple Farming

  • Although pineapple is grown mostly under rainfed conditions, supplementary irrigation can help in the production of good sized fruits in areas having optimum rainfall.
  • Irrigation can also be helpful in the establishment of off-season planting to maintain year-round production of fruits for feeding canning factories.
  • Therefore in scanty rainfall areas and years and during hot weather, irrigation ensures a good crop of pineapple.
  • Pineapples are normally cultivated in coastal areas and places where rainfall is abundant. Therefore, irrigation is not really needed.
  • However, if cultivated on a commercial scale supplementary irrigation helps in producing good sized fruits.
  • In addition, irrigation helps in off-season planting. It also ensures all year round pineapple production.
  • This practice is to follow for producing export quality pineapples.
  • If grown in areas of scanty rainfall with hot weather, then irrigation must be done once in two weeks.

Inter-cropping

  • Inter-cropping is a way of extra income.
  • Also, the main advantage is intercropping is enrich the soil.
  • Earthling up is an essential operation in pineapple cultivation aimed at good anchorage to plants.
  • It involves pushing the soil into the trench from the ridge where trench planting is a common practice.
  • As the pineapple roots are very shallow, the plants are eventually lodged especially under conditions of flat-bed planting in heavy rainfall areas.
  • Lodging of plants when the fruits are developing would result in lopsided growth, uneven development and ripening of fruits.
  • This operation becomes more important in Raton crops, as the base of the plant shifts-up, crop after crop.
  • High-density planting would minimize the necessity of this operation, as the plants prop each other preventing lodging.

Pests and Diseases in Pineapple Farming

  • This is one big challenge of growing pineapples.
  • Pineapples must have the perfect fruit with the perfect oblong shape and the just right ‘pineapple’ flavor.
  • Else they lose market value. Although infections are uncommon in pineapple cultivation.
  • Crown Gal, Fasciations makes pineapples totally useless for consumption.
  • A very high soil fertility and warm weather favors boost vegetative growth resulting in fasciations.
  • Such plants take a longer time than normal plants to flower.
  • In extreme cases, the fruit may be flat and appear twisted with innumerable crowns.
  • Presence of a collar of slips innumerable number of slips arising from the stem near the base of the fruit or sometimes from the fruit directly results in this condition.
  • Owing to the excess slip growth, the resultant fruit is tiny, tapered with knobs at the base.
  • Generally, a high nitrogen fertilization, heavy rainfall, and relatively low temperature together result in a collar of slips.

 

Storage/Harvest in Pineapple Farming

  • It typically takes 2-2.5 years for pineapples to get ready for harvest.
  • They flower after 12-15 months of planting and start fruiting only after 15-18 months.
  • Usually, the fruits ripen after 5 months of the inflorescence.
  • Fruits cultivated for canning purposes are harvested as soon as a small change at the base of the fruit is noticed.
  • The ones for table purposes are harvested only after they develop a golden yellow color.
  • The harvested fruits are graded according to their size, color, and weight and then sent for storing.
  • On an average, the yield depends on the cultural practices followed and inter-spacing. However, it varies from 20-30 tons per hectare. After harvest, fruits with a crown can be stored up to 15 days without damage.
  • However, those that are transported must be refrigerated during transportation so as to slow down the ripening process.
  • They can be stored at 10-130 C for 20 days.
  • The optimal storage temperature is 7.2⁰C with 80-90% relative humidity.

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