Pigeon Peas Farming / Toor Dal Farming

By | October 8, 2018

Pigeon Peas Farming

This Information Guide related to Pigeon Peas Farming its also called Toor Dal Farming. If you are interested in Pigeon Peas Farming please read this information guide.

Introduction of Pigeon Peas Farming

  • Scientifically known as Cajanus Cajan, Pigeon Pea belongs to the widespread family of pulses.
  • The Pigeon Peas Farming is thought to have originated in India, where it is still widely grown as a food crop.
  • It is also used extensively as a cover crop, green manure, intercrop etc. in much suitable farming in the tropics and subtropics.
  • The plant is a short live perennial shrub.
  • It grows to two to four meters and lives for about five years.
  • They are cultivating in India, Indonesia, the Philippines, The Caribbean, East, and West Africa.
  • The seeds can be a range of colors.
  • Mine is light brown, but they can be cream, grey, purple or black, depending on the variety.
  • Toor dal is call in other languages as tuver, toor, tur Dal in Hindi.

Grown Areas of Pigeon Peas Farming In India

  • In India, major Pigeon Peas Farming states are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Gujarat, and West Bengal.

Nutritive and Medical Value of Pigeon Peas

  • Pigeon Peas seeds are 25% protein.
  • It can be eaten fresh or as split dried peas.
  • Pigeon peas are provided Vitamin A and C more than 5 times then green peas.
  • It is particularly rich in Lysine, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Niacin, and Iron.
  • The leaves and young shoots can be eaten cook they are fibrous and have a strong spicy dour.
  • Animal Fodder, excellent feed cattle, pigs and poultry.
  • Mulch Production.
  • It can be cut many times in a season.
  • Green Manure.
  • Incorporate the plants as they flower.
  • Also provides nitrogen, habitat and soil stabilization.
  • Also suitable as a shelterbelt around vegetable gardens.
  • Woody parts can be used for firewood.
  • Helps in agro-ecology, the performance of Pigeon peas as an intercrop is remarkable.
  • Even after the harvesting of the intercrops, it continues protecting the soil.
  • Plants can be used along contour barriers for erosion control.
  • Perennial for up to 5 years.
  • The fast-growing plants make good shade for other crops, e. g. vegetables, herbs, and vanilla.

How Can Grow Pigeon Peas Farming?

  • Seeds should be free from insect, pest and diseases.
  • It should be free from any inert matter like dust particles, weed seeds etc.
  • Seeds should be viable and genetically pure.
  • Sowing should be done in line sowing method with tractor drawn fertile-cum-seed drill.
  • Seed can be sown in dibbling method with hand dibber to maintain optimum plant stand and higher productivity.
  • Fertile-cum-seed drill should be use for the application of fertilizers and seed sowing at a time.
  • Seeds should not be sown more than 5 to 6 cm in depth.
  • In the rain, fed and dry areas pigeon pea are sown with the onset of the monsoon.
  • Note That Earlier sowing gives higher yields in India.
  • When sowing extra- early and early – maturing varieties in the 1st fortnight of June.
  • The field is available for post rainy season crops by the end of November.
  • Therefore, sowing should not be a delay beyond June.
  • The sowing of medium and late-maturing varieties, under rainfed conditions, should be done during June or July at the onset of the monsoon.
  • This should be preferred before the 2nd week of July.
  • Late sowing causes considerable reduction in yield due to photoperiodicity and excessive soil moisture stress which considers with the growth.
  • The post rainy season sowing in India should be done in September.
  • Seed should be treated with thiram 1.5 to 2 g/kg seed.
  • It should be treating with rhizobium culture for atmospheric N fixation.
  • Seed should be own behind the plow or with the help of seed drill at a row spacing of 60-75 cm keeping 15-20 cm distance from plant to plant.
  • A seed rate of 12-15 kg per hectare is sufficient.
  • In mixed Cropping, seed rate is adjusted according to the proportion of archer and companion crops to be grown.
  • Remember that intercropping seed remains same as for pure crops.


Varieties of Pigeon Peas in India

  • Extra short duration varieties of Pigeon Peas farming in

India: Plant A3, UPAS- 120, Prabhat, etc.

  • short duration varieties of Pigeon Peas farming in

India: Pusa Ageti, T21, HY2, C01, Pusa 84, etc.

  • Medium duration varieties of Pigeon Peas farming in

India: HY 1, HY 3A, HY 5, BDN 1, etc.

  • Late duration varieties of Pigeon Peas farming in

India: C11, Bahar, Laxmi, Gwalioe 3, `etc.

Growing Requirement in Pigeon Peas Farming

  • Pigeon peas farming is predominantly a crop of tropical areas mainly cultivate in semi-arid regions of India.
  • Pigeon peas can be grown between 14 to 28 latitude,
  • Temperature ranging from 26 to 30 C in the rainy season.
  • Also in Postseason temperature ranging from 17 to 22 C.
  • The amount of daily global solar radiation varies from 400 to 430 cal day in the rainy season.
  • The amount of daily global solar radiation varies from 380-430 cal cm-2 day-1 in the post-rainy season.
  • Mean annual rainfall ranges’ from 600 to 1400 mm, of which 80-90% is received in the rainy season.
  • The length of growing season extends from 120 to 180 days.
  • Pigeon peas farming are very sensitive to low radiation at pod development, therefore flowering during the monsoon and cloudy weather.

Suitable soil/Land Preparation in Pigeon Peas Farming

  • In India. Pigeon peas are cultivated on alfisols, Inceptisols, and Vertisols.
  • The Vertisols are characterizing by 40-60% clay in the surface soil horizons, ph around 8.0 with a water holding capacity between 150-300mm.
  • Alfisols are neutral in reaction and relatively shallow with low-clay content.
  • It does not grow well in saline soil but can withstand drought reasonably well.
  • Good land preparations are necessary for better yield of red gram.
  • Land should be plow in summer followed by two to three harrowing at pre-monsoon for Kharif season.
  • Land should be well level.
  • Collect the weeds, previous crops stubbles, stones and clean the field for sowing.

Best Planting season for Pigeon Peas Farming

  • Mainly the optimum time of seed sowing varies greatly depending upon climate, varieties and their temperature requirement for growth.
  • Pigeon Peas can be grown from July- November.

Spacing Between Plants for Pigeon Peas Farming

  • The optimal plant population per acre depends upon the plant’s growth habit like compact, medium or spreading, sizes like small, medium or large at maturity, the vigor of specific cultivars, climate, soil moisture and nutrient availability, soil productivity, and intended use.
  • Accurate spacing is obtained from sized seeds and precision seeders.

Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Pigeon Peas Farming

  • To obtain a good yield of excellent quality roots, judicious application of manures and fertilizers is recommended.
  • Mostly use 15 kg of N and 45 kg P2O5 per hectare is sufficient for this crop.

Water supply/Irrigation in Pigeon Peas Farming

  • Pigeon Peas require 35-40 cm water, during its entire growth period.
  • Optimum moisture is necessary during budding, flowering and pod formation stages.
  • As Red gram is a rain-fed crop grown in assures rainfall areas, usually, it does not require any irrigation.
  • If there is water stress, protective irrigation may be given in alternate rows at these 3 stages.


  • Blue Butterfly
  • Grass Blue butterfly
  • Plume Moth
  • Bean Aphids
  • Wilt
  • Sterility Mosaic
  • Powdery mildew
  • Leaf Spot

Inter-cropping in Pigeon Peas Farming

  • Inter-cropping is growing of two or more crops of dissimilar growth pattern on the same piece of land and time.
  • Traditionally Pigeon peas are inter-cropping with short duration grain pulses, oilseeds, cereals or cotton.
  • Like Groundnut, maize, Sorghum, Soybean, Black gram, Chickpea etc.

Storage/Harvest in Pigeon Peas Farming

  • Plant dry, grains become hard, and moisture percent in grain at harvesting should be 20-22%.
  • Pod shattering is a common problem in the pulse.
  • Harvest the whole plants with a sickle when 80% of the pods mature.
  • The pods or whole crop after complete drying should be harvesting manually or by machine.
  • 15-20 kg as rain-fed inter-crop and 25-30 kg as irrigated mono-carp can be obtained.
  • Very early and early varieties yield 20-30% less.
  • Pigeon Peas is usually stored for long periods to ensure availability of whole seed at the time of sowing, and as a dhal to meet consumer requirement.

Split Pigeon Peas (Toor Dal) Image source: woodlandfoods.com


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