Pear Fruit Farming Study Guide

By | September 18, 2018

Pear Fruit Farming

This article introduces to Pear Fruit Farming, How you can Pear Fruit Farming, If you Interested in Pear Fruit Farming please read this full article so let’s talk about Pear Fruit Farming…

Introduction of Pear Fruit Farming

  • Pear is one of the most important fruit crops of temperate regions.
  • Fruits are tasty with a pleasant flavor.
  • Pyres species are native to the Northern Hemisphere of the old world.
  • European and West Asian species are native to Eastern Europe and South Western Asia. East and North Asian species are native to Eastern Asia including China, Japan, and Manchuria.
  • Patharnakh originated in China from where Chinese merchants and settlers brought it to Amritsar’s village Harsa China during the time of Lord Kanishka (120-170 AD).
  • From here patharnakh spread to other areas. In Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, Patharnakh is cultivated under the name of Gola pear.
  • The area under pear is steadily increasing In North India.
  • In Punjab pear occupies an area of 2147 hectares’ with an annual production of 42940 tonnes.
  • With the production of new promising semi-soft pear cultivars, the area under pear is likely to increase further.
  • Now the quality plants of soft pears are being made available to the growers by Punjab Agricultural University nurseries.
  • Biting into a juicy pear is one of the joys of the season.
  • See how to plant, grow, and harvest pears in your own backyard or farm.
  • They are easy to fit into small yard spaces, and attractive, and require very little care once established.
  • Low chilling varieties have been adapted to subtropical regions of India.
  • Pear has wider soil and climate Adaptability.

Grown Areas of Pear Fruit In India

  • In India, Pear fruit is found growing along foothills of Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh

Nutritive and Medical Value of Pear Fruit

  • Fruits are a rich source of protein of 0,69 g, vitamins, and minerals like calcium of 8 mg, phosphorus of 15mg, and iron 0.5mg per 100 grams of pulp.
  • Patharnakh has become the commercial fruit crop of Punjab.
  • The story of the delectable pear begins in the soil.
  • Rich volcanic soil provides the foundation need for growing sweet, superb pears, starting with a wide variety of minerals.
  • As water from nearby riverbeds and snowmelt seeps into the ground, these minerals are enveloped and soak up through the pear tree’s roots.
  • Once inside, these minerals and water serve as vital nourishment as the tree flourishes in the northwest sunshine.
  • With this exceptional combination of nature’s elements, the pear tree bears succulent fruit that ensnares some of these vital nutrients in a sweet and juicy package for our enjoyment.

How Can Pear Fruit Farming?

  • Seedlings raise from seeds are not consider suitable planting material because of late bearing and not bring truth to the types which shoe great variation in form, size, edible quality and number of seeds.
  • For commercials orcharding, farmers are advised to use planting material produced by vegetative propagation methods like patch budding and soft-wood grafting.
  • Seedlings can be used as rootstock for producing true to the type planting material.
  • Rainy season is the best time for the Beal Tree farming.
  • However, planting can be done in spring season if irrigation facilities are available.
  • Dig the planting pits of 1m * 1m * 1m size at least one month prior to the onset of monsoon.
  • Keep the planting pits open for 20-25 days thereafter fill each pit with a mixture of topsoil and 10-15kg of FYM.
  • This may be followed by irrigations to settle down the soil in pits.
  • If Depression takes place due to irrigation, add pit filling mixture to the pit.
  • Plant the Bael sapling at the center of the pit and provide support to the plant.
  • Make a basin around it and irrigate gently.
  • Do mulching with dry leaves to conserve moisture.
  • Training and pruning are done during the early years of a plant to develop a good and strong framework of scaffold branches.
  • Cut the main stem at a height of 0.9- 1.0 m.
  • Heading back results in the formation of new shoots below the cut point.
  • Retain 3-4 well space and well orient new primary branches.
  • Do keep the tree trunk clean i.e. without side shoot up to 60-75 cm.
  • This requires for carrying out intercultural operations smoothly.
  • The primary branches become mature in 6-7 months.
  • After attaining the maturity prune these primary branches to their 50% length.
  • This inducer new shoot growth on primary branches. Retain only 2-3 secondary branches per primary.
  • The primary branches pruning is generally not advisable as this fruit crop bears fruits on one-year-old shoots.
  • Pruning is restricting to central opening and removal of weak, dead, disease, dry, criss-cross and broken branches after fruit harvesting and before the commencement of new flush.
  • Remove suckers from the rootstock time to time.

Varieties of Pear Fruit Farming in India

  • There is no improving cultivar for commercial cultivation.
  • Some varieties are Pear, Nashpati, Perikai, Sabaril, Comice, China Pear.etc.

Growing Requirement in Pear Fruit Farming

  • Prepare the pits beforehand as describe under layout and planting of orchards.
  • The number required for planting on a hectare of patharnakh is 169 and soft pear 272.
  • These plants plus five percent extra should be the book with a reliable nursery in advance.
  • Check the pear plants beforehand. Plants should be straight, without any bend.
  • The graft union should be smooth, without any plastic rings. The plants should not be older than two years and should be without spurs.
  • The height of plants may be between one meter to one and a half meter.
  • There should be only vegetative buds present on the main axis.
  • Ensure that while lifting the plants from nursery soil all the roots have been drugged out.
  • Head back the plants to 90 cm of height before planting in the field during December-January. Place the plants in the prepared pits so as to adjust the whole root system in the pit and press from all sides. Apply irrigation soon after the actual planting.
  • Pear plants can also be trained in the nursery for three years near the planting site.
  • Since pears have a long juvenile period and take time for the plants to fill whole of the space provided hence, these can be kept in the nursery.
  • For this purpose, plant the pear plants at 1.5 m X 1.5 m apart.
  • Train the plants there as per the modified leader system of training. For final planting lift full root system without causing any injury to the root system and branches during December.
  • Plant these plants in the prepared pits so as to adjust full root system in the pits at the desired depth.
  • The vegetative branches may be given a little pruning that plants may not tilt after irrigation is applied.

Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Pear Fruit Farming

  • Pear needs nutrition for the formation of spurs on the vegetative shoots and for flavoring and fruiting later on.
  • Trees produce heavy crops and can remove 25 kg of N, 10 kg of P, 40 kg of K and 40 kg of lime.
  • The foliage drops during dormancy also add some nutrition.
  • Nitrogen should not be applied in excess as profuse vegetative growth can invite twig to die back.
  • Pear usually shows- iron and zinc deficiencies during summers, which should be taken care of by spraying ferrous sulfate @ 2g/L or zinc sulfate @ 2g/L respectively.
  • The pear may be applied following doses of manures and fertilizers for getting high returns from the orchards.
  • It is very important to know the method of application.
  • Growers usually hand over the fertilizers to their workers and they just spread it according to their ease near the tree trunks, which is damaging.
  • The farmyard manure should be well rotten. Mix farmyard manure, superphosphate, and muriate of potash and add by uniformly spreading in the tree basins in December- January.
  • For the first five years of the age of the plant, the quantity of urea to be applied may be divided into three equal parts.
  • Apply each part in April, June, and August. Mix the fertilizers well with soil in the plant basins and apply light irrigation.
  • To the bearing, plants apply farm yard manure, superphosphate and potash during December.
  • But urea may be divided into two halves. Apply first half in February and second in April after the fruit set.
  • The dose of this half can further be reduced if the fruit set is less. Sometimes few trees may not bear at all or bear very little fruit.
  • In such a situation the April dose may not be applied to these trees. These situations do arise in soft pears. To get more advantage from the inorganic fertilizers, green manuring with leguminous crop should be done after every alternate year.

Water supply/Irrigation in Pear Fruit Farming

  • Pear should only be grown where assured irrigation facility is available.
  • Pear needs frequent and light irrigations from March to June. Flowers in February and fruits grow during summer months, hence the dire need of sufficient moisture.
  • During the second phase of growth of the fruits 15 Jime-15 July, there is a huge requirement of water for the trees. If the rain is not there orchards may be irrigated by supplying sufficient irrigation.
  • Make segments of 5-6 plants instead of making bigger segments of an acre or so. Larger segments need heavy irrigation, which may invite root rot.
  • Saving of labor for making small segments at the cost of losing trees is no management.
  • Orchards which were not provided with sufficient irrigation had stunted growth of pear trees but were free from root rot.
  • After the fruit harvest, the interval of irrigation may be increased to be month up to November.
  • The making of plies/galleries of earth on the tree trunks and scaffolds is a good indication of white ant attack, which normally is seen in September and October months.
  • Check this attack by applying chlorpyrifos @ 10 ml/L. of water.

Pests in Pear Fruit Farming

Silver Leaf:
  • Leaves develop a silvery sheen, cut branches revel red staining. Prune from the end of June until the end of August or in rare spring. Keep pruning cuts to a minimum, pruning regularly so cut surfaces are small.
Bacterial Canker:
  • This disease occurs of sunken, dead areas of bark often accompanied by the gummy ooze. It can kill off entire branches. Also, burn or landfill the pruning.
Glasshouse red spider:
  • Leaves become mottle, pale and cover in webbing on which the mitts can be clearly seen, leaves also drop prematurely. Use biological control in the greenhouse.
  • Birds: Birds in Pigeons mostly affects the apricot fruits. It can cause an array of problems including eating seedlings, buds, leaves, fruits, and vegetables. Avoid this problem by protecting the plants from birds by covering netting.
Drills:
  • These are a worm’s type. It is attacked by drill device galleries that trace the host trees.
Big-headed Worm:
  • It is a pest that affects many fruit trees. The main damages are caused by the larvae that build galleries in weakling the plant roots which eventually die.
  • To avoid this pest use as biological traps feronomas.

Diseases in Pear Fruit Farming

Rust:
  • A disease caused primarily by fungi of the genus Puccini and Melampsora, which use the excess humidity to thrive. It means as spots of orange or brown on the leaves. Then a yellow color in the part of the beam.
Moniliosis or Flower Blight:
  • This affects flowers that dry. Also, produce a blacking of the fruits that are dry on the branches without falling. Apricot tree is infecting by the appearance of cankers on the branches and the sticky liquid oozing out of some parts of the plants.
Powdery Mildew:
  • This Disease is caused by fungus or Podosphaea Sphaerotheca rate. The first attacks the fruit in summer and leaves in spring. It is produced by a white spider web on fruits, leaves, and stems. Over time these stains by infection with order plants that keep fungus in the winter and spread their spoors in spring.
  • Watering the tree itself will help prevent the disease because the water may be able to clean the spores.
  • In some location using a biological fungicide call AQ10.
  • It is the parasitic fungus Ampelomyces quisqualis that feeds at the expense of podosphere.
  • Do not use sulfur on Apricot trees.
Gummosis:
  • It is a gummy substance oozing from the bark. Also causes from diseases to excessive pruning, failure of any component in the substrate, adverse weather conditions, injuries etc.
  • In many cases, the gumming is an adaptation of the plant itself that covers wounds to prevent invasion of external agents.
  • To avoid such an event should be sought and address the cause that produces it.
Eutipiosis:
  • The most common disease also attacks the vine are often sudden fractures of branches in old trees and the sudden wilting leaves.
  • It is a cause that produces gummier in the wounds heal pruning.
  • Around the same is, in general, a lot of resin oozing chancre.
  • Then this disease center of the plant and ends up killing her.
  • Try to do the pruning day days to prevent the growth of these fungi and seek to reduce pruning old trees.
  • The solution is to use a fungicide paint that covers the injuries on the tree after pruning.
  • Peach Blight: It is affected by the almond and peach trees but sometimes affects in the plum and apricots Tress.
  • It is produced by Fusicoccum amygdale that causes brown and elongate cankers’ at the base of the knots and yolks branches of the year, lead to the strangling of them and then death by the action of the toxins of the fungus.
  • Also attacks the leaves large brown spots.
  • Infection occurs through spores spread by rain penetrating wounds more or less large each of the parts of the plant or directly the young trees.
  • The solution of this disease removes the affected part of the plant and the use of Fungicides.

 

Inter-cropping in Pear Fruit Farming

  • Inter-cropping is way of extra income.
  • Due to long juvenile period in pear, growing of inter crops in necessary for the grower.
  • Only those crops should be grown which adjust to the growth behavior of pear.

Storage/Harvest in Pear Fruit Farming

  • Pear should be harvest at full maturity.
  • Immature fruits on harvesting get shriveled.
  • Patharnakh takes 145 days to mature from full bloom.
  • Soft pears take 135 days to mature. At maturity green color of the fruit changes to light yellowish green, firmness decreases.
  • TSS of the juice reaches 9-10 percent. Optimum harvesting time for Patharnakh in North India is end July. Similarly, for soft pears, it is August.
  • Care should be taken while harvesting the fruit.
  • Gently pick the finite upward, give a little twist and thumb press the pedicel at the point of attachment with the spur.
  • Spurs should not be injured during fruit harvesting. A spur can bear fruit for 10-15 years. The broken spurs do not bear fruit for 3-4 years.
  • Fruit pedicels also should not break from the center. Either there should be full stalk or there should be no stalk with the fruit.
Harvesting 
  • Harvesting should be done with the help of ladders. Trees should not be shaken for fruit harvesting.
  • Harvest fruits should be kept under shade in an airy ‘Varandah.’
  • Fruits should not be wet at the time of packing. For sending the fruit to a distant market it should be packed properly in wooden boxes.
  • A box may contain 17-18 kg of fruit. Place the fruits in layers in the boxes by placing some grass/rice trash at the bottom and at the top and cover it with paper before closing the box with its HD.
  • Packed boxes are transported by trucks. Grade the fruits before packing.
  • Properly graded and packed fruits in wooden or cardboard boxes can be stored at 0 to 3°C with RH 85 to 90 percent.
  • Pear can be stored in a controlled atmosphere at 0-l°C with 1-2% O^ and 0.5% CO2for two months. A practice adopted by middlemen at Delhi market is worth to mention.
  • They send pear boxes alternately packed with mango boxes in trucks.
  • They say both mango and pear get benefited. Pear develops a very good color by absorbing ethylene produce by mangoes, and mango does not rot.
  • Pears should not be stored for long periods to save their competition with early apple coming to market.
  • Pears should be stored for 20-30 days to tide over the glut period.

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