Peach Fruit Farming Information Guide

By | September 25, 2018

Peach Fruit Farming

Hello, This Farming information guide is regarding the Peach Fruit Farming. We cover all the information about the Peach Fruit Farming & Peach Fruit Cultivation. If you are interested in Peach Fruit Farming please read this full article, and after reading this information guide any question regarding Peach Fruit Farming in your mind please comments below we will help you surely. so let’s start Peach Fruit Farming…

Introduction of Peach Fruit Farming

  • Peach Fruit Farming is an important stone fruit crop of the temperate zone.
  • Peach (Prunus persica) is an important fruit crop of Meghalaya.
  • Besides, Meghalaya it is also grown in almost all states of the NEH region because of the introduction of the low chilling varieties.
  • Fruits are rich in protein, sugar, minerals, and vitamins.
  • It has various uses as fresh fruit as well as the processed product.
  • The start-up costs for peaches can be high depending on the production method chosen, land preparation, and initial investment in the trees.
  • A commercial orchard is expected to be productive for at least 15 to 20 years, so this investment is spread over a longer period of time than that of many crops.
  • Depending on the amount of land devoted to the orchard, production method, and tree size, equipment costs may be held to a minimum.
  • If the orchard is a part of an existing agricultural operation, you may already have much of the needed equipment.
  • Peach Fruit Farming will require many hours of labor, depending on the size of the orchard.
  • Land preparation and planting will require at least two people.
  • During the summer months, the orchard will require mowing, multiple pesticide applications, and fruit thinning.
  • Depending on the mix of varieties and orchard size, additional labor may be required at harvest time.
  • Although you may be able to accomplish these tasks with family members and local part-time labor, use of hired labor may also be necessary.

Grown Areas of Peach Fruit Farming In India

  • Jammu and Kashmir: Prabhat
  • Uttar Pradesh: Rehaven, sunhaven, quetta, july, peshwari
  • Himachal Pradesh: Alton, world’s earliest, early white giant, redhaven, stark, red gold, early candor
  • Low hills and plains: Flordasun, shan-e-punjab, early amber, prabhat, flordaking, sharbati
  • Punjab: pratap, flordasun, shan-e-Punjab, khurmani, sharbati, red sun, red (nectarine)

Nutritive and Medical Value of Peach Fruit

  • One raw medium peach (147 grams) has 50 calories, 0.5 grams of fat, 0 grams of cholesterol and sodium, 15 grams of carbohydrate, 13 grams of sugar, 2 grams of fiber and 1 gram of protein.
  • It provides 6% of your daily vitamin A needs and 15% of daily vitamin C needs.
  • One medium peach also contains 2% or more daily value of vitamins E and K, niacin, folate, iron, choline, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, manganese, zinc, and copper.
  • Fresh fruits are a moderate source of vitamin-A and beta-Carotene.
  • Beta-Carotene is a pro-vitamin, which converts into vitamin A inside the body.
  • Vitamin A is essential for prevention of night vision issues and for maintaining healthy mucous membranes and healthy skin.
  • Consumption of fruits like peaches that are rich in vitamin A are known to offer protection from lung and oral cancers.
  • They contain many vital minerals such as potassium, fluoride, and iron.
  • Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that help regulate heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Fluoride is a component of bones and teeth and is essential for prevention of dental caries.
  • Iron is required for red blood cell formation.

Varieties of Peach in India

  • The Indian Blood Peach is a large fruit with a tough scarlet red skin similar to a beet and flesh of a yellow color streaked with red.
  • Unlike other types of peaches, the Indian Blood Peach tends to have a firmer texture when it is ripe.
  • It is also capable of growing up to 12 inches around.
  • Low chilling varieties like TA-170, Flordasun, Shan-e- Punjab, and Sharbati are suitable for NEH region.

How Can Peach Fruit Farming?

  • When thinking about how to plant a peach tree, take a good look at your soil.
  • You should have deep sandy soil that ranges from a loam to a clay loam.
  • Poor drainage in the soil will kill the root system of growing peach trees, so make sure the soil is well drained.
  • Growing peach trees prefer a soil pH of around 6.5.
  • When it comes to learning how to grow peaches, you need to start out with a healthy one-year-old tree that has an established root system.
  • A small tree that has a good root system is better than a larger tree without one.
  • When it comes to the care of peach trees, this will definitely help with growing peach trees that are hardy and healthy.
  • Having a good knowledge of the care of peaches is vital.
  • In order for fruit to grow, you need pollination. Growing peach trees are self-fruitful, which means that pollen from the same flower or variety can pollinate the tree and produce fruit.
  • Because of this, when it comes to how to plant a peach tree, you should know that you only need to plant one.
  • If you are planning on putting peach trees in your backyard, know that one tree will suffice.
  • Before you plant your peach tree, you should perform some soil care. Rake and hoe the soil until it is smooth on the surface and free from clumps and rocks.
  • Prepare the soil as deep as you will be planting the tree.
  • Make sure your soil pH is 6.5 and if not, adjust it accordingly.
  • Peach Tree care requires that you soak the roots of the tree for six to twelve hours before you plan on planting it.
  • Dig your hole in the ground large enough for the roots of the tree to spread comfortably within it.
  • This is vital for the care of peach trees. Soak the area completely after planting, and make sure to keep the area around the tree weed free.
  • After planting, prune the tree back to 26 to 30 inches, cutting off any side branches.
  • This will ensure you have a better crop.
  • If you have more fruit than you imagined show up after blossoming, thin the crop to ensure those left on the tree will produce larger and better tasting.
  • Before planting peaches, choose a site with well-drain, moderately fertile soil in full sun.
  • Be sure to avoid low areas because frost can more easily settle there and destroy your peaches.
  • Plant the trees in spring. It is best to plant the trees the day you get them, if possible.
  • Pick a tree that is about 1 year old.
  • For container-grown trees, remove the plant from its pot and remove any circling roots by laying the root ball on its side and using shears to cut through the roots.
  • For grafted trees, position the inside of the curve of the graft union away from the sun when planting.
  • Dig a hole that is a few inches deeper and wider than the spread of the roots.
  • Set the tree on top of a small mound of soil in the middle of the hole.
  • Be sure to spread the roots away from the trunk without excessively bending them.
  • If you are planting standard-size trees, space them 15 to 20 feet apart. Space dwarf trees 10 to 12 feet apart.
  • However, most types of peach trees are self-fertile, so planting one tree at a time is fine.

Growing Requirement in Peach Fruit Farming

  • It is cultivated on the varied type of soils but deep sandy loam soil rich in organic matter is best.
  • It is highly susceptible to waterlogging and prefer perfect drainage.
  • It can be fitted in any type of farming system and can thrive well in high hills, foothills as well as mid-hills situations.
  • The land should be prepared as if planting a traditional field crop.
  • The soil should be plowed and leveled with a disk and harrow.
  • Starting with an even orchard floor will reduce the possibility of standing water and make fruit harvesting and transportation easier.
  • Establishing an orchard in well-prepared soil rather than established sod will also aid in keeping the tree rows and row middles free of broadleaf weeds.
  • The elimination of any broadleaf weeds or plants is crucial prior to planting peaches.
  • Broadleaf field crops such as soybeans or alfalfa should not be grown prior to planting peaches.
  • These plants may harbor a virus responsible for Prunus stem pitting, a serious disease in peaches.
  • Prior to planting trees, a soil fertility test and nematode survey are recommended.
  • The results from the soil test provide recommendations for any soil amendments such as lime and/ or fertilizer needed prior to orchard establishment.
  • The best way to add soil amendments for an orchard is to incorporate them into the soil prior to planting trees.
  • The nematode survey is critical before planting peaches to determine if any treatments are needed to eliminate harmful nematodes.
  • Left untreated, nematodes may damage the root system of the trees and can stunt or kill them before they bear fruit.
  • This will result in uneven tree growth and delayed or decreased production.
  • Peaches and nectarines are self-fruitful, so there is no need for trees or cultivars used specifically as pollenizers like many other fruit crops.
  • This allows cultivars to be planted together in solid blocks to make harvesting easier.
  • Honeybee hives are usually brought into the orchard to ensure good pollination.
  • If you do not have your own honeybees, you will need to contact a beekeeper to provide hives.
  • Care must be taken with insecticides applied at flowering because they can adversely affect pollinating insect populations, especially honey bees.
  • Honey production may provide an additional diversification opportunity for orchardists.
  • To produce large peaches and nectarines with good color, thinning the number of flowers and/or small, immature fruit is necessary.
  • Because of a lack of good chemical thinners for peaches, they must be hand or mechanically thinned.
  • Mechanical thinning can be accomplished by using a Darwin String Thinner, which is mounted on a tractor and used during bloom.
  • While the use of the machine does not preclude the need for follow-up hand thinning of fruit, it can result in greater fruit size and uses substantially less labor.
  • Hand thinning is still the surest and most common method of thinning used today.
  • Unlike mechanical thinning, hand thinning begins in early June and continues until the process is finished.
  • Peaches and nectarines should be thinned to approximately 8 to 10 inches between each fruit.
  • This spacing should be increased if the larger fruit is desired or when the crop is drought stressed.

Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Peach Fruit Farming

  • Nutritional requirements for peach trees vary through their lifetimes and are influenced by such factors as rootstock, crop load, soil type, and weather conditions.
  • In addition to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, peach trees need adequate levels of calcium, boron, copper, and zinc to maintain the health of the tree and produce quality fruit.
  • After planting, soil tests and leaf analyses are recommended at least once every three years.
  • A leaf analysis is the most accurate way to determine if applied soil amendments are being used by the tree.
  • Leaf analysis test kits can be purchased at your county extension office or ordered online.

Water supply/Irrigation in Peach Fruit Farming

  • Peaches must be pruned each year.
  • The best time to prune peaches in Pennsylvania is from late March to early May.
  • Pruning earlier may expose the trees to winter cold injury; pruning too late may reduce fruit size.
  • Some cultivars benefit from summer pruning done two to three weeks before harvest.
  • Summer pruning consists of removing the dense rank of growth in the center of the tree to allow more light into the tree and improves final fruit color.
  • The open-center system consists of establishing three to five major scaffold limbs close to the ground.
  • A bowl-like tree shape is desired where the limbs are pruned to force growth to the outside of the tree while the middle of the tree is maintained more open.
  • Tree height is normally kept low by pruning so the trees can be harvested from the ground or with very short ladders.
  • The perpendicular-V system is a higher density system in which only two major limbs oriented perpendicular to the tree row are allowed to develop.
  • The advantage of this system is that trees can be planted closer in the row to increase the number of trees per acre.
  • The disadvantage to this system is that tree height is greater than with the open-center system, making harvest somewhat more difficult, and it has an increased potential for limb breakage.

Pests and Diseases in Peach Fruit Farming

  • Peach is less affected by diseases and pests.
  • However, sometimes, powdery mildew and shot hole cause damage to the crop.
  • Powdery mildew disease cause white powdery substances on the leaves, buds, and flowers.
  • This disease is controlled by spraying Sulfex @ 2.5g/l of water.
  • Shot hole disease is caused by a fungus, in which dark brown scattered lesion on leaves appears.
  • This disease is controlled by spraying with Captain @ 2g/l of water.
  • Peach leaf curling aphid sucks growing buds.
  • Leaf buds become weak and result in poor setting and fruits falls-off prematurely.
  • It can be controlled by spraying with Dimethoate (Roger) @ 1.5 ml/l of water or Monocrotophos (Nuvacron) @ 2.5 ml/l of water at 7-10 days before flowering.
  • Stem borer feed below the bark, making minute irregular galleries, result in the bark split and gum oozes out from the holes.
  • The branches start drying up and do not bear fruits.
  • The affected branches should be cut and destroy.
  • Nuvan or Monocrotophos @ 2.5ml/l of water or petrol at the rate of 5ml per hole should be injected and close the holes with clay mud thoroughly.

Inter-cropping in Peach Fruit Farming

  • Additional income can be obtained by growing intercrops such as ginger, chili, French bean, rice bean, red bean, and vegetable crops in the peach during the pre-bearing stage.

Storage/Harvest in Peach Fruit Farming

  • Peaches do not mature all at once, and normally it will be necessary to harvest a tree two to four times.
  • The length between harvests is dictated by the weather as well as the location of the fruit within the tree.
  • Most peaches are harvested based on firmness and color. Harvest will vary depending on how you will be marketing your fruit.
  • Fruit destined for the wholesale market is picked at a less mature stage so the fruit can better withstand the rigors of shipping.
  • Fruit that you intend to sell locally can be left on the tree slightly longer to mature and soften.
  • These “tree-ripe” peaches usually command a somewhat higher market price.
  • Extreme care must be taken not to bruise or damage peaches and nectarines during the harvesting process.
  • Bruising and any damage will lead to early spoilage and a large reduction in the returns realized from the sale of the fruit.
  • Traditionally, peaches destined for the wholesale market are shipped to the packer as soon as they are harvested.
  • If you are selling directly to the consumer, they can be stored for a short time.
  • At a temperature of 31 to 32°F and humidity of 90 to 95 percent, peaches may be stored for up to two to four weeks.
  • Even if some family labor is used for harvest, outside labor may be necessary to harvest the crop in a timely manner.
  • If you use hired labor, you are required to follow all laws and regulations concerning hired labor.

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