Passion Fruit Farming
Contents in this Post
- Passion Fruit Farming
- Introduction of Passion Fruit Farming
- How Passion Fruit Farming?
- Grafting / Propagation
- Sowing / Seedling
- Spacing in Passion Fruit Farming
- Varieties of Passion Fruit Farming in India
- Growing Requirement in Passion Fruit Farming
- Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Passion Fruit Farming
- Pests & Diseases in Passion Fruit Farming
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Introduction of Passion Fruit Farming
- Passion Fruit Farming is a highly lucrative enterprise with high and regular income.
- The crop is adaptable to a wide agro-ecological zone from low lands to the highlands.
- The demand for the Passion Fruit in both local and the export market is still unmet.
Origin and Distribution of Passion Fruit Farming
- Passion Fruit Farming was introduced into Kenya in the 1920s for commercial juice processing.
- In India, Passion Fruit Farming was introduced in the early part of the twentieth century in the Nilgiris, Coorg and Malabar areas of southern India.
- Passion Fruit is native to the tropical regions of southern Brazil.
- Currently, however, large quantities of passion fruits are eaten fresh locally and also export it is a perennial vigorous vine, which flowers and produces fruits within a year after establishment.
- The vine is shallow-root, woody, climbing by means of tendrils.
Use of Passion Fruit
- Yellow variety has snowier intense color.
- Fruits are oval or round shape with rough waxy rind.
- The rind hue ranges from dark- purple with faint fine white specks to light yellow.
- The Passion Fruit contains a flavorful juice that is subacid to acid.
- Passion Fruit is eaten fresh but the processors are the other commercial outlet.
- Fruits are generally not used for table purpose. But they possessed unique flavor and aroma and high nutritional and medicinal properties.
- They are processed to make fruit juice and concentrate.
- The juice is delicious and has an excellent flavor.
- It is known for its blending quality. Fruits contain the good proportion of reducing and non-reducing sugars and acids.
Grown Areas of Passion Fruit In India
- In India, though passion fruit was introduced in early part of the twentieth century it’s cultivation was limit to few districts of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
- Since last one decade, its cultivation starts in some parts of northern India, especially North East
- The area under this crop is rapidly increasing in Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur, and Sikkim. And there is a great potential for its cultivation in these states.
- Presently passion fruit is cultivated in Munnar and Wayanad of Kerala, Nilgiri hills and Kodaikanal of Tamil Nadu, Coorg region of Karnataka and parts of Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur, and Sikkim.
Nutritive and Medical Value of Passion Fruit
- Passion Fruit promotes intestinal health.
- Passion fruit has a lot of cardiovascular benefits.
- Helps in treating insomnia. Also prevents cancer.
- Passion fruit contains Iron which relieves anemia.
- Passion Fruit improves the blood pressure. Also improves the eye health and Blood circulation.
- Fruits are rich in Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and minerals such as sodium, magnesium, sculpture, and chlorides.
- Passion fruit is used for urinary infections and as a mild diuretic, digestive stimulant, and heart tonic and to treat asthma, whooping cough, bronchitis, coughs gastric cancer etc.
How Passion Fruit Farming?
Grafting / Propagation
- Passion Fruit is propagating through seed, stem cutting as well as grafting.
- Passion Fruit vine originating from cutting or grafting starts fruiting much earlier 7-6 months than those from seeds 10-12 months.
- In case of grafting on resistant rootstocks, yellow Passion Fruit can be used to avoid damage due to wilt or root rot.
- Passion fruit vines are usually grown from seeds but seed propagation is not preferred for commercial multiplication as a lot of variables is found in seed propagates plants.
- For seed propagation, fruits are collected from vines known for their performance in term of yield and quality.
- The seeds are extracting by fermentation method by heaping up the pulp for 72 hours and extracting the seeds and drying in shade.
- Grafting is used to multiply hybrid varieties on disease-resistant rootstocks.
- Cleft graft, whip graft or side wedge graft methods can be used.
- In this method, the lateral shoots emerging from the main branches are given partial slanted cut below the nodes and shoots are allow rooting in rooting medium consisting of soil, sand, and compost with regular irrigation. This should be done in the month of February.
- The roots emerge profusely within 45 days. These plants should be separate from April to May.
- The method has been found highly successful with 90-95 percent success with 75 days of layering.
- The field survival of the plants propagate by this method is higher.
Sowing / Seedling
- Sowing is done preferably during the month of March-April in a well-prepared seedbed.
- The seeds start sprouting in about 12-15 days after sowing and germination is complete in about a month.
- In some cases germination extends even up to 50-60 days.
- When the seedlings attain four to six leaves, they are transplanted in 10 x 22 cm. polythene bags filled with a mixture of soil, compost, and sand in 2: 1: 1 proportion.
- The seedlings are ready for transplanting in the field in about three months.
- Seedlings can be raised in a seedbed or in pots. The plants became ready for grafting in 3 months.
- This is the most popular method of multiplication of passion fruit.
- Passion fruit is not an easy to root plant but rooting is satisfactorily under favorable conditions.
- The 30-35 cm long mature portion of the vines having 3 to 4 nodes is select for the cutting.
- It should be raised in a suitable media preferable equal mixture of sandy soil and farmyard manure.
- Rooting may be hastened by hormone treatment.
- It has been found that treatment cutting with 200 ppm NAA for very short period 3-5second or 80 ppm NNA for 12-hour increase the rooting in cutting.
- Rooting takes place within a month and can be transplanted to the field in about three months.
- The yellow passion fruit is resistance to nematode infestation and diseases and found to be a good rootstock for hybrid varieties.
- The seed yellow passion can be sown either in March or in October for raising the seedling depending upon the availability of the seed.
- Scions from healthy young vines are preferred to those from mature plants.
- Generally both stock and scion should be of pencil thickness for grafting.
- The diameter of the select scion should match that of the rootstock.
- The land should be well prepared by deep plowing, leveling and incorporation of manures.
- Proper spacing should be provided as this greatly influences the growth of the vine and production.
Spacing in Passion Fruit Farming
- A spacing of three meter from row to row and two-meter plant to plant form is suitable.
- Pits of 45 x 45 x 45 cm size are dug and filled with a mixture containing three parts of topsoil and one part of compost.
- Planting is done preferably on cloudy days during June-July after the onset of monsoon so that the plants are well established by the end of the monsoon.
Varieties of Passion Fruit Farming in India
- There are many varieties of passion fruit available across the world.
- Like Yellow Passion Fruit, Purple Passion Fruit and Kaveri hybrid fruit which is a combination of Purple and yellow, these are the most famous types of Passion fruits.
Growing Requirement in Passion Fruit Farming
- Passion Fruit prefers a tropical and sub-tropical climate with moderate rainfall ranging between 100 and 250 cm.
- It is found growing at an altitude of 800-1500m above sea level.
- In purple passion fruit, cool temperatures are favorable for flower initiation and fruit set 18-23O C while relatively high temperatures seem necessary for promoting juice production 18-23O C and improvement in quality.
- Yellow passion fruit grows under low land tropical conditions, whilst, the purple type tends more to be cultivated in subtropical areas or at higher altitudes in the tropics.
- The low-temperature effects fruiting of the vines and upper parts suffered cold injury.
- It generally requires an average annual rainfall of 100 cm.
- In India, it is found to be grown in areas of receiving rain from between 100 cm and 250 cm.
- Passion fruit is grown on many soil types but light to heavy sandy loams, of medium texture is most
- Soil with a pH of 6.5 to 7.5 is the most suitable.
- If the soil is too acid, lime must be applied.
- The soil should be rich in organic matter and low in salts because the vines are shallow root.
- Good drainage is essential to minimize the incidence of collar rot.
- Waterlogging and soil without drainage should be avoided.
Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Passion Fruit Farming
- Generally, no manures or fertilizers are applying to rainfed crop.
- The Nutrient removal pattern on the whole plant including fruits analysis reveals that from a hectare area accommodating 1500 plants averaging 37 tons fruit yield.
- The number of different nutrients removes was: 202.5 kg N –4 kg P, 184.2 kg K – 151.6kg Ca – 14.4 kg Mg – 25.0 kg S – 770. 4 g Fe, 2810.2 g Man, 198.7 g Cu – 316.9 g Zn –295.8 g B.
- This suggests the nutritional requirements of passion fruit in order to determine the optimum fruit yield and to improve the longevity of passion fruit vine and to recommend an optimum dose of fertilizer for the crops.
- However, this may vary according to the fertility status of the soil.
The fertilizer recommends for south Indian states
- The fertilizer recommends for south Indian states is more than the recommend fertilizer schedule for Northeastern states.
- A fertilizer dose of 110g N, 60g P2O5 and 110g K2O per vine per annum is recommending for the 4-year-old orchards in South India.
- For Kaveri hybrid 100g N, 50g P2O5 and 100g K2O per vine per annum are recommended.
- While 80g N, 40g P2O5 and 50g K2O per vine per annum are recommended for the 4-year-old orchards for the North Eastern States.
- Nitrogen should be applied in 3 split doses in the months of February-March, July-August, and October -November along with farmyard manure.
- Evenly spread in a circle of 50-45 cm radius about the stem having sufficient moisture in the soil at the time of fertilizer application to ensure better use efficiency.
- While potash should be given in the two split doses.
- In addition to this, 2-3 sprays of 0.5% Urea can be given during the summer months.
- The foliar application of micronutrients is recommended for deficient areas.
Water supply/Irrigation in Passion Fruit Farming
- Prolong dry spell during January-March may reduce the main summer crop and may also affect adversely the development of flowering laterals.
- If there is no rainfall during the dry months, supplementary irrigation may be given at fortnightly intervals.
- On an average, passion fruit requires irrigation of 12-15 liter /vine/day in summer and 6-8 liter /vine/day in winter.
- Drip irrigation is very useful.
- Passionfruit vine responds significantly to fustigation.
- In a study on the response of passion fruit to K fustigation showed highest commercial production.
Pests & Diseases in Passion Fruit Farming
- Brown spot is a serious disease follow by Root rot.
- The disease is caused by Alternaria macrospora And is recognized by the presence of concentric brown spots with greenish margin.
- Girdling of branches and premature defoliation of the leaves occur in severe cases.
- The appearance of the spot on the fruit causes spoilage during transit or storage.
- If the disease is not check in time, the decline of the orchard results.
- The affect branches should be pruned and burnt and spraying with mancozeb or diathene Z- 78 (0.2%) should be done for the control of the disease.
- Root Rot caused by Phytophthora nicotiana parasitica has been found causing considerable damage.
- Rotting of the root starts and ultimately the plant dies.
- To control the disease, water logging should be avoided by providing proper drainage.
- Drenching with Bordeaux mixture (1 %) may be done and affected plants should be mounded with soil to encourage new root formation.
- The insect punctures the immature fruit while the fruit is developing and the rind is still te
- Fruits become woody around the puncture area and in several cases, they are deformed and the pulp content is reducing.
- This can be controlled by a spray of malathion 0.05%.
- Spraying may be done only in the afternoon to minimize the destruction of insects pollinating the flowers.
- Mites feed on leaf and tender fruits.
- Defoliation of leaves and undersize fruits result from this. Tt car controls by a spray of Kelthane 0.05%.
Storage/Harvest in Passion Fruit Farming
- The flowers are borne singly in the axils of the leaves in the terminal region of the new growth.
- Passion Fruit flowers and fruits throughout the year under favorable conditions, yet there are two main periods of fruiting.
- The first harvest extends from August to December and the second one from March to May.
- The first fruits are obtained from the ninth month and full bearing is reached in 16-18 months.
- About 60-70 days are required from fruit set to the harvest of fruit.
- The fruit when ripe falls down from the vine.
- Harvesting is done when fruit turns slightly purple.
- Fruit should be harvest along with the stem.
- On an average, a yield of 10-12 tons per hectare per year can be obtained.
- The vines are perennial and can produce yield for 10 to 15 years but maximum production can be obtained up to six years after which the yield declines.
- Fruits harvest should be disposed of off quickly to prevent the loss of weight and appearance.
- About 10-20% loss in weight results from storage and fruits wrinkle and give a bad appearance.
- To avoid this they can be stored in polythene bags and for transport to distant markets, polythene-lined crates may be used.
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