Papaya farming – Information Guide

By | September 7, 2018

Papaya farming all information guide

The following contain about the papaya farming in India we talk about all needed information with papaya fertilizer chart information and many more so let’s start …

 

Papaya farming Introduction

Around the world papaya known as a “carica”, papaya is native to the tropical region America mostly Mexico and Costa Rica .  This fruits having a special importance because of its high nutritive and medical value. Papaya is a famous fruit for its high medical value and nutritive. This fruit cropping very early than other fruit comes, papaya cultivated in India as a commercially and also on small scale. 3670 hectores yield 47280 tonnes of papaya cultivated in India as per Statistics report. Among the hill station , Mizoram , Tripura and Manipur is the highest Production area of the papaya. Papaya farming is the fifth most commercially yield in India. Around the world total 6 million tonnes papaya produce annually. India is the leader in papaya cultivation , annual output of papaya is approximately 3 million tonnes in India. Other leading producers are Brazil , Mexico , Indonesia, china , Thailand , Nigeria and Philippines.

Verities of Papaya in Papaya farming

Honey dew:

it is dioecious with less percentage of male plant and breeds true to the type from seed, semi tall variety, bear fruits low on the trunk heavily. This variety is popular all over India, also known as Madhu Bindu.

Sunrise Solo:

The variety is named ‘solo‘ because one man can easily consume one fruit. This is gynodioecious variety from Hawaii with small sized fruits, pyriform and yellowish orange pulp and keeping quality is good.

Coorg honey dew:

Selection from Honey dew at IIHR, Chethalli. This variety produces no male plants. The plants are either hermaphrodite or female. Fruits borne on female plants are almost seedless and are of excellent quality.

Washington:

The plants are vigorous, stem and leaf stalks are with purple ting, fruits medium to large, round to ovate, sweet, pulp orange color with good flavor.

The improved strains Papaya Verities released from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore

Co-1

It is a selection from variety Ranchi, dwarf type medium sized, spherical shape and greenish yellow fruits with golden yellow pulp good keeping quality, yield is about 100 –120 tons/ha.

Co-2:

It is a delicious, semi dwarf, medium tall type, very good for table and papain extraction. It yields 5-6g. of papain per fruit.

Co-3 :

A hybrid between Co-2 x Sunrise solo. It is gynodioecious in nature, Tall vigorous plant with medium sized fruits. The pulp is attractively red colored and is good for table purpose, Yields 100- 220 tons/ha.

Co-4:

A hybrid derivative from Co-1 x Washington. It is dioecious, medium- tall plant with large fruits (1-1.5kg) , Yields 100-220 tons/ha.

Co-5:

Selection from Washington and the plants are exclusively selected for papain extraction and yields about 14-15 g. of papain/fruit, Yields 100-220 tons/ha.

Co-6:

Selection from pusa majesty, it yields about 80-100 fruits and also a high papain (7.5-8 g/fruit) yielder i.e., 890 kg of dry papain/ha, Yields 100-220 tons/ha .

Co-7:

It is also a gynodioecious developed through multiple crosses CP-75 ( Pusa deliciousxCo-3) and coorg Honey dew, yields 160-180 tone/ha.

PUSA, Bihar-released some improved varieties

Pusa delicious

It is a gynodioecious with medium sized fruits (1.5kg) and high yielder, male has been eliminated genetically by sibmating with hermaphrodite.

Pusa majesty:

A gynodioecious, medium round fruits with good keeping quality. Plants resistant to virus diseases. The fruit with stand long distance transport.

Pusa giant

Dioecious variety with big sized fruits (2-3.5 kg), plants are very vigorous and resistant to wind damage. The fruits are suitable for canning industries.

Pusa dwarf:

The plants are dwarf and bears fruits at 38cm from the ground, they are dioecious and medium yielder, medium sized fruits, suitable for HDP and home gardens.

Pusa nanha:

A dioecious dwarf mutant and well suited for kitchen garden, nutrition garden and pot cultivation. It yields about 60-65 tonnes of fruit/ha. It is developed by gama radiation, suitable for High density planting.

State wise Verities of Papaya in Papaya farming

 

Andhra Pradesh :

Honey Dew, Coorg Honey Dew, Washington, Solo, Co-1, Co02, Co-3,Sunrise Solo, Taiwan.

Karnataka & Kerala :

Coorg Honey Dew, Coorg Green, Pusa Delicious & Pusa Nanha.

Jharkhand :

Ranchi Selection , Honey Dew, Pusa Delicious & Pusa Nanha.

West Bengal :

Ranchi Selection, Honey Dew, Washington, Coorg Green.

Orissa :

Pusa Delicious, Pusa Nanha, Ranchi Selection, Honey Dew, Washington, Coorg Green.

 

 

Propagation in Papaya farming

The seeds should be collected from healthy ripe fruits essentially from the plants free from pest  & diseases. Papaya is usually propagated by seeds.

The seeds should be rubbed with ash to remove mucilaginous coating (Aril/Sarcotesta) to facilitate better germination.

However seeds can be stored for 45 days in an air tight container and stored at 100C. Before sowing, soaking seeds in 100ppm GA solution to enhance germination percentage.

Sowing Process for Papaya farming

Papaya Seeds may be sown in poly bags (22x15cm with 150 gauges) 6 weeks prior to transplanting.  The media should be disinfected by using 2 % formalin solution,  4 seeds per polybag should be sown, if it is dioecious variety or 2 seeds, if it is hermaphrodite variety.

Seeds also sown in raised nursery beds; about 350 g seeds are required to plant one hectare area.

Germination will be observed in 2-3 weeks after sowing. About 6-7 weeks old seedlings will be ready for transplanting.

Custard apple Cultivation

Climate and Soil Requirements for Papaya farming

 

Papaya is susceptible to frost. It is tropical in its climatic requirement.

Papaya plant requires worm humid climate and can be cultivated up to an elevation of 1000-1200 m above MSL.

It thrives well at temperature between 38-440C, but optimum range is 22-360C, a day temperature of 350C and 250C night temperature are most suitable.

Papaya require fertile soil, deep clayey and calcareous and rocky soils are not suitable. Papaya grows well under well drained soil with a pH range of 6-7.

 

Planting Process in Papaya farming

Best Planting Season :

best season for papaya planting is monsoon (June-July)and You can planting in Spring time (February-March)and Autumn (October-November). But Monsoon is the best season for Papaya farming.

Spacing Between Two Papaya plants in Papaya farming :

 

For Papaya plantation the pit size of 1-1.5 cubic feet should be dug at 1.8 x 1.8m or at 2.4 x 2.4m apart and filled with 30-40 kg FYM with 25gm aldrin 5 % dust will be added to the pits and filled with top soil.

High Density Planting :

For Papaya High Density plantation the pit size of 1-1.5 cubic feet should be dug at 1.2 x 1.2m and filled with 30-40 kg FYM with 25gm aldrin 5 % dust will be added to the pits and filled with top soil.

 

Flowering in Papaya Farming

 

In Papaya farming starts flowering in 5-6 months after planting process.

When the sex of the plant is identified, surplus male plants (plants with long 1-11/2 meters flower stalk hang out with small tubular flowers contains stamens only), may be removed keeping one male plant for every 10 female plants, as pollinizers.

Removing of male plants by maintaining1 male plant for every 10 plants after flowering.

How to Sex Identification of Papaya in papaya farming please click on below link

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1084952106001224

 

Manuring in Papaya farming with Papaya Fertilizer Chart State wise  :

The recommended dosage of fertilizers for different states are given below and the fertilizers are to be applied in 4 splits at 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th months after planting. While applying fertilizers it is not necessary to fertilize the male trees left as pollinizers as they will regularly put forth necessary male flowers without any extra manuring.

N (g/plant/year) P    (g/plant/year) K (g/plant/year) K (g/plant/year) STATE
250 250 500 500 Karnataka
100 250 500 500 Maharastra
250 200 200 200 Tamilnadu
150 80 100 100 Uttarpradesh
150 150 150 150 Westbengal

 

 

 

Inter Croping and Inter Cultivation in Papaya Farming

If you want ro inter croping in papaya farming you can do inter coping in papaya farming, Different short duration vegetables can be profitably grown for about six months from planting papaya plants.

 

For control of weeds, weedicides like fluchloralin or butachlor at 2.0 kg/ha have to be applied. Post emergent herbicides – Glyphosate has also been found effective.

 

Water Irrigation in Papaya farming

For water irrigation in papaya farming you can use Ring irrigation system. If you use Ring water irrigation syatem irrigate papaya plant in 8-10 days in Winter and 6 days in Summer.

 

Weed Management in Papaya farming

 

Application of weedicide such as Fluchloralin or Butachlor at 2.0 kg/ha, Post emergent herbicides – Glyphosate has also been found effective.

 

 

Harvesting and Storing Papaya in Papaya farming

 

The average yield is 30-80 tons/ha.

Papaya comes to bearing with 10 months after planting. The economic life is only 3-4 years. Fruits are harvested when the fruit turn slight yellow in colour. While harvesting, fruit should not be damaged to prevent rotting. Manual harvesting is commonly practiced.

Than Wash the fruits with water or fungicide i.e., Benlate at 0.05per cent and pack in boxes with cushioning materials.

After harvesting in about 5-6 days fruit ripens depending upon room temperature. Fruits could be stored for more than 4-5 weeks at 00C; also individual fruits are wrapped in the newspaper for ripening

Papain Extraction in Papaya farming

Papain is a proteolytic enzyme extracted from the milky latex obtained from immature papaya. About 400 tons of papain is produced throughout the world. The USA and UK are the major consumers of papain.

 

Procedure :  The immature fruits of 90-100 days old are used for extraction of milky latex by giving 4-6 cuts of about 2mm depth, the latex is collected from 5-6 tapping and sieved the latex and dried in sun or in vacuum shelf dryer.

The quality and grade of papain is determined by color and enzyme activity (Tyrosine unit).

 

Post Harvesting and Storage

After harvesting the fruits are graded on the basis of their weight, size and colour. Fruits are highly perishable in nature. Papaya can be store for a period of 1-3 weeks at a temperature of 10-130 C and 85-90% RH.

 Plant Protection and Diseases management in Papaya farming

 

Mite incidence may be occasionally noted especially during summer. Few insects like scales, mealy bugs, aphids and thrips have been reported infesting the fruit tree. Scale insects and mealy bugs on stem and leaves.

 

Diseases:

 

Anthracnose: (colletotrichum gloesporiodes): The initial symptoms are small round water soaked area on fruits which later develop into sunken or concentric lesions. The disease also affects the petioles of lower leaves leading to their shedding.

 

Powdery Mildew:- (Oidium caricae)- The fungus is found mostly growing on the upper surface of the leaves with drawing nutrients from the cells of the leaf surface. Under severe attack the top portions of the seedling may die.

 

Caller rot and wilt: This occurs mainly due to the incidence of pythium aphanidermatum and phytopthora palmivora.

 

Nematodes: Root knot (Meloidogyne Sp) – Affects the root systems and cause yield reductions.

 

Viral Diseases:

Mosaic

Leaf curl

Ring spot –

Of these, the papaya ring spot virus is common in North India, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh and after it has become a major threat to papaya production in several tracts.

 

Project Cost and Profit in Papaya farming per Acre

 

 

COMPONENTS per ACRE INVESTMENTS (RS)
Planting Maerial 15000
Fertilizer and Manure 10000
Pesticides 5000
labour 45000
Drip Irrigation System 35000
Fertigation Technique 50000
Shed 10000
Farm Needs 5000
Land Development 10000
Fencing 25000
TOTAL COST 210000

 

Total Production/ ACRE Rate / KG Income / Acre Cost/ Acre Profite
27000 20 540000 210000 330000

 

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