Mushroom Cultivation In 5 steps
Contents in this Post
- Mushroom Cultivation In 5 steps
- Compost Making
- Spawning for Mushroom Cultivation
- Casing in Mushroom Cultivation
- Fruiting in Mushroom Cultivation
- Harvesting of Mushroom Cultivation
Oyster Mushroom Substrate (Compost) Preparation
Oyster mushroom can be cultivate on a large number of agro-wastes. These include straw of paddy, wheat and ragi, stalk and leaves of maize, millets and cotton, used citronella leaf, sugarcane bagasse, saw dust, jute and cotton waste, dehulled corncobs, pea nut shells, dried grasses, sunflower stalks, used tea leaf waste, discarded waste paper and synthetic compost of button mushrooms etc.
It can also be cultivated by using industrial wastes like paper mill sludges, coffee byproducts, tobacco waste, apple pomace etc.
The popular methods of substrate preparation are:
- Steam Pasteurization
- Hot Water Treatment
- Fermentation or Composting
- Chemical Sterilization.
- Sterile Technique (Till method)
More about Oyster Mushroom Cultivation Click Hear
Button Mushroom Compost Preparation
The substrate on which button mushroom grows is mainly prepare from a mixture of plant wastes (cereal straw/ sugarcane bagasse etc.), salts (urea , superphosphate / gypsum etc), supplements (rice bran/ wheat bran) and water. In order to produce 1 kg.of mushroom, 220 g. of dry substrate materials are require.
It is recommend that each ton of compost should contain 6.6 kg. nitrogen, 2.0 kg. phosphate and 5.0 kg. of potassium (N:P:K- 33: 10:25) which would get converted into 1.98% N, 0.62% P and 1.5% K on a dry weight basis. The ratio of C: N in a good substrate should be 25-30 : 1 at the time of staking and 16-17 : 1 in the case of final compost.
Two methods of Button mushroom compost making Check For click here
Spawning for Mushroom Cultivation
The process of mixing spawn with compost is called spawning. The different methods followed for spawning are given below:
(i) Spot Spawning: Lumps of spawn are planted in 5 cm. deep holes made in the compost at a distance of 20-25 cm. The holes are later covered with compost.
(ii) Surface Spawning: The spawn is evenly spread in the top layer of the compost and then mixed to a depth of 3-5 cm. The top portion is covered with a thin layer of compost.
(iii) Layer Spawning: About 3-4 layers of spawn mixed with compost are prepared which is again covered with a thin layer of compost like in surface spawning.
Spawning In oyster Mushroom
Freshly prepare (20-30 days old) layer and mix spawning is best for spawning. Old spawn (3-6 months) stored at room temperature (at 20-300 C) forms a very thick mat like structure due to mycelium aggregation and sometimes young pinheads and fruit bodies start developing in the spawn bottle itself. The spawning should be done in a pre-fumigated room (48hrs.with 2% formaldehyde).
Spawning In Button Mushroom
After the spawning process is over, the compost is fill in polythene bags(90×90 cm., 150 gauge thick having a capacity of 20-25 kg. per bag)/ trays(mostly wooden trays 1×1/2 m. accommodating 20-30 kg. compost) / shelves which are either cover with a newspaper sheet or polythene.
The fungal bodies grow out from the spawn and take about two weeks (12-14 days) to colonise.
The temperature maintained in cropping room is 23 ± 20 C. Higher temperature is detrimental for growth of the spawn and any temperature below than that specified for the purpose would result in slower spawn run. The relative humidity should be around 90% and a higher than normal CO2 concentration would be beneficial.
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Casing in Mushroom Cultivation
The compost beds after complete spawn run should be covered with a layer of soil is call Casing Process.
Casing In Oyster Mushroom Cultivation :
In Oyster Mushroom Cultivation Casing not require .
Casing In Button Mushroom Cultivation :
A layer of casing soil about 3-4 cm. Thick to induce fruiting. The casing material should be having high porosity, water holding capacity and the pH should range between 7-7.5.
Peat moss which is considered to be the best casing material is not available in India.
We can use mixtures like garden loam soil and sand (4:1); decomposed cow dung and loam soil (1:1) and spent compost (2-3 years old); sand and lime.
How To use Casing Soil In Button Mushroom Cultivation .. Click Hear
Fruiting in Mushroom Cultivation
After casing is done the temperature of the room is again maintained at 23-280 C and relative humidity of 85-90% for another 8-10 days. Than After Fruit period start.
Fruiting in Oyster Mushroom Cultivation :
When the mycelium has fully colonize the substrate, the fungus is ready for fruiting. Contaminate bags with moulds may be discard while bags with patchy mycelium growth may be left for few more days to complete mycelium growth.
Require different temperature regimes all require high humidity (70-85%) during fruiting.
Frequent spraying of water is require in the cropping room depending upon the atmospheric humidity.
Fruit body produced under humid conditions (85-90%) is bigger with less dry matter while those develop at 65-70% relative humidity are small with high dry matter.
How to create more humidity in your cultivation room Click Hear..
Fruiting in Button Mushroom Cultivation :
Temperature (initially 23 ± 20 C for about a week and then 16 ± 20 C ), moisture (2-3 light sprays per day for moistening the casing layer), humidity( above 85%), proper ventilation and CO2 concentration (0.08-0.15 %) the fruit body initials which appear in the form of pin heads start growing and gradually develop into button stage.
More about Button Mushroom Cultivation please click Hear..
Harvesting of Mushroom Cultivation
Harvesting of Oyster Mushroom Cultivation :
The right shape for picking can be judged by the shape and size of the fruit body.
The fruit bodies be harvest before spore release, by twisting so that the stubs are not left on the straw.
More than 500 kg. of fresh mushrooms per ton of dry wheat or straw can be obtained in case of crop produce.
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Harvesting of Button Mushroom Cultivation :
Harvesting is done at button stage and caps measuring 2.5 to 4 cm.
The first crop appears about three weeks after casing.
Mushrooms need to be harvested by light twisting without disturbing the casing soil.
Once the harvesting is complete, the gaps in the beds should be filled with fresh sterilized casing material and then watered.
Click Hear and know about the Profit in Button Mushroom Farming