Litchi Farming – All details for gardener and farmers
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Litchi also known as Lychee in many countries. Litchi farming as a commercial is most profitable business as compare to some other fruits farming so lets keep on litchi fruit farming.
Litchi is a one of the subtropical evergreen table fruit grown in India. This fruit native to China and introduce in India at the end of 17 th century. India is a no.2 producer of Litchi fruit next to China. In India, Bihar is no. 1 producer of Litchi fruit. This fruit is very famous for its pleasant flavor and pulp. This fruit is being consume as table, dry and canned fruit. Its juice is an excellent source of vitamin C, protein, calcium and phosphorous.
- Grown Areas:-
- In India it is mostly grown in Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Punjab, Haryana, Uttaranchal, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.
- Nutritive and Medical Value:-
- Litchi is an excellent source of Vitamin C and is also a good source of B complex vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and floats. Litchi is quite low in Calories, contains no cholesterol and is rich in dietary fiber, so use in weight loss. It also helps to improve blood circulation, reduces weight and protects the skin. Litchi is wealthy source of phosphorus and magnesium which supports powerful bones. Litchi has provides anti-cancer properties.
How Can Grow…?
- Place one Litchi seed into each cup, on its side, at a depth of 3-4 inches. Then cover, Place the trays or cups in a warm, sunny place like a windowsill, a sun room or a greenhouse. Water regularly to keep the soil damp. After 3-4 weeks, the shoot will grow to 3-4 inches in size and develop dark green leaves.
Varieties of Litchi Cultivated in India:
- There are many varieties grown in different parts of the country.
- Some of the most popular commercial varieties are Rose Scent, Calcuttia, Early, Late Seedless, Deshi, Kasba etc.
Propagation is done through seeds as well as vegetative method. Vegetative propagation is the most common method of propagation in Litchi fruit Farming. In this method, Litchi is propagate successfully by cuttings and grafting. The best and most common practice adopt all over the world is air-layering method.
Suitable soil/Land Preparation:
This fruit tree can be grown on wide range of soils. However, well- drain deep loam soils rich in organic matter are best suite for its production. They even grow best bin light sandy loam soils and lime content in the soil also beneficial for its growth. The Ideal soil Ph range for best yield is 5.0 to 7.0. Land should be plough 2 to 3 times with a desi disc plough and harrow.
Air- layering propagation is usually us at of monsoon and the air layers can be detach from the mother plant after 60 to 75 days. The land should be level and clean from previously grown crops vegetation. Once planting is done irrigation should be carry for soil settlement.
- Best Planting season:
- The Best planting time is Aug to Sept and in case of irrigation, planting can be done in spring and early summer.
Spacing Between Plants:
- Dig the pits size of 1 meter* 1 meter* 1 meter with a distance between plants and rows of 10 meters and these pits should be dug few weeks before the plantation.
- Mainly a square system of plantation is god for Litchi farming.
- The pits should be fill with 25 kg farm yard manure and fertilizer of 2 kg bone meal and 300 grams muriatic of potash per pit.
- Adding soil from old Litchi orchard will be beneficial much.
- The recommend dosage of manure and fertilizers in Litchi fruit farming is depend on growth.
- In case of fully grown Litchi tress, application of at 1-3 years of tree age, 10-20 kg farm yard manure, 0.3-1.00 kg of CAN, 0.2-0.6 kg of Phosphate and 0.05-0.15 kg of potash per each Cherry tree is recommend for better yield and quality.
- In case of fully grown Litchi tress, application of at 4-6 years of tree age, 25-40 kg farm yard manure, 1.0-2.0 kg of CAN, 0.75-1.25 kg of Phosphate and 0.20-0.30 kg of potash per each Cherry tree is recommend for better yield and quality.
- In India, Carry about 2 to 3 irrigations at the interval of 45 to 60 days during winter for fruit bearing Litchi trees. In case of hot summer months, irrigation should be given at 2 weeks interval. Drip irrigation system can be better use of water for Litchi farming. However, basin or ring system of irrigation is recommend in case of abundant water.
- Red dust
- Leaf spot
- Powdery mildew
Possible in Litchi farming inter-cropping for extra income during first 4 years as Litchi is a long gestation crop taking about 5 to6 years to the fruiting stage. The advantage of inter-cropping is enriching the soil. Ans any vegetable inter-cropping is carry with Litchi plants.
The Litchi tree has a long growing period with four phases. Young non-bearing stage like 1-3 years,Young bearing stage like 6-10 years, junior adult bearing stage like 11 to 20 years, senior adult bearing stage like above 21 years. During the junior adult bearing phase the tree enters into a condition when vegetative growth and remain relatively balanced. Fruiting begins from 5 to 6 years of age in case of plants propagate through air layering. After flowering, it takes 10 to 100 days for ripe to fruits in varieties. On a average, the Litchi tree yields 40 to 100 kg fruits annually depending on the variety, season and age.