KIWI FRUIT FARMING
Contents in this Post
- KIWI FRUIT FARMING
- Spacing of Kiwi Plants:-
- Kiwi Fruit Farming widely in new Zealand, Italy, USA, China, Japan, Australia, France, Chile and Spain.
- The Kiwi fruit has high nutritive and medical value. It is a rich source of vitamin B & C and minerals like phosphorus, potassium & calcium.
- Kiwi Fruits are consumed fresh or combined with other fruits in salads and desserts. It is also used for preparation of squash and wine.
- In India, Kiwi Fruit Farming in the mid hills of Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, J & K, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Kerala.
- Varieties of Kiwi Fruit Cultivated In India:- The main kiwi varieties cultivated in India are Abbott, Allison, Bruno, Hayward, Monty and Tomuri.
Growing requirements for Kiwi Farming:-
- Kiwi fruit vines are fairly hardy and grow in a wide range of temperatures, but to produce best quality Kiwi fruit they need.
- Well-drained, Fertile soils
- Shelter from the wind
- Adequate moisture year-round
- Protection form autumn and spring frosts.
- Suitable Soil for Kiwi Farming:- The deep, yellow-brown loams of the Bay of Plenty are well-drained, but need regular nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium once the vines begin cropping.
- Orchards are usually fertilized in spring and early summer with 200 kilograms of nitrogen, 55 kilograms of phosphorus and 100-150 kilograms of potassium per hectare.
- Shelter for Kiwi Farming:-Wind is a major limiting factor in establishing a kiwifruit farm and growing high-quality kiwi fruit. Young and flowering shoots are easily damaged, and most Kiwi orchards need protection from winds.
Land Preparation for Kiwi Fruit Farming:-
- Steep land is contour into terraces for planting vines. The rows are to be oriented in the north-south direction to avail maximum sunlight.
- A through preparation of soil is essential for the successful establishment of its vineyard.
- Preparation of pits, mixture of farmyard manure and filling of pits are to be completed by December.
- Planting Material in Kiwi Farming:- Kiwi Plants are mostly propagate vegetatively through cutting and Grafting.
- Best Planting season for Kiwi Farming:- Kiwi Farming Planting is usually done in the month of January.
- The Planting should be done at the same depth at which the plants were growing in the nursery.
- The soil should be firmly place around the roots.
- The plants are pruned hard to about 30 cm. to encourage vigorous growth.
Spacing of Kiwi Plants:-
- Kiwi Planting distance varies according to variety and system of training. Usually, T-bar and Pergola system are adopted for planting.
- In T-bar, a spacing of 4 m. from row to row and 5-6 m. from plant to plant is common whereas in pergola system, a spacing of 6 m. from row to row should be maintain.
- To ensure pollination, male plants are distribute through the orchard, with male to female plant ratios around 1:5.
- Fertilizers and Nutrition in Kiwi Farming:-A fertilizer does of 20 kg. Farmyard manure(basel dose), 0.5 kg. mixture containing 15% N is recommend for application every year. After 5 years of age, 850-900 g. N, 500-600 g. P, 800-900 g. K and farmyard manure should be applied every year.
- Kiwi requires high CI because its deficiency adversely affects the growth of shoot and roots.
- In contrast, excess levels of B and Na are harmful. The N fertilizer should be apply in two equal doses, half to two-thirds in January-February and the rest after fruit set in April-May.
- In young vines the fertilizer is mix in the soil within the periphery of the vine, and for the mature vine it is broadcast evenly over the entire soil surface.
Training for Kiwi Farming:- Training is require to establish and maintain a well-formed framework of main branches and fruiting arms.
- The supporting branches are erect even before planting the vines or thereafter as early as possible.
- Three types of supporting structures(fences) are construct. A single wire fence is commonly adopt though another wire is sometimes provide and then structure takes the form to kniffin system.
- One 2.5 mm. thick tensile wire is strung on the top of pillars which are 1.8-2.0 m. high above the ground.
- The pillars are made of wood, concrete or iron and are erected at a distance of 6 m. from each other in row.
- The wire tension at installation should not be over-strain otherwise can break at knot due to crop load.
- A cross arm (1.5 m.) on the pole also carries two outrigger wires. This training is known as T-bar or overhead trellies/telephone system.
Irrigation/Water supply in kiwi Farming:-
- Irrigation is provide during September-October when the fruit in initial stage of growth and development. Irrigation at 10-15 days interval has been found to be beneficial.
- Weed Control in Kiwi Farming:-Inter-cultural operations are carry out on regular basis to remove the weeds.
- Inter-cropping in Kiwi Farming:-Inter-cropping with many vegetables and leguminous crops is beneficial during the initial five years of Kiwi Farming.
- Storage of Kiwifruit:- Kiwi fruits have an excellent keeping quality. The fruits can be kept in good condition in a cool place without refrigeration upto 8 weeks. It can be kept for 4 to 6 months in a cold storage at -0.6 to 0 C.
Packing of Kiwifruit:-
- There is no standard package for kiwi fruits. Cardboard boxes of 3-4 kg. Capacity are generally use for packing.
- Transportation & Marketing:-Road transport by Trucks/lorries is the most convenient mode of transport due to easy approach from orchards to the market. Majority of the growers sell their produce either through trade agents at village level or commission agents at the market.
- Bottom Line:-Wonderful Fruit with Excellent Profits.