Contents in this Post
- Jackfruit Farming
- Introduction of Jackfruit Farming:
- Grown Areas of Jackfruit In India
- Nutritive and Medical Value of Jackfruit
- How Can Jackfruit Farming?
- Varieties of Jackfruit in India
- Growing Requirement for Jackfruit Farming
- Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Jackfruit Farming
- Water supply/Irrigation in Jackfruit Farming
- Pests in Jackfruit Farming
- Diseases in Jackfruit Farming
- Inter-cropping in Jackfruit Farming
- Storage/Harvest in Jackfruit Farming
This article regarding to how to Jackfruit Farming, If you interested in Jackfruit Farming please read this blog so lets start talk about Jackfruit Farming information guide….
Introduction of Jackfruit Farming:
- Jackfruit is one of the most remunerative and Important fruits of India.
- It belongs to the family Moraceae.
- Jackfruit begins as small, flowering pods on the end of the end of straight green stalks.
- As they mature and enlarge, the flowers fall away revealing hundreds of small, hard, cone-shape protrusions.
- At full maturity, Jackfruit can measure up to 80 centimeters long and 50 centimeters wide, and can weight anywhere from 10 t0 50 pounds.
- Jackfruit of Jack also known as jacquier, kathal, langka, etc., is a plant which probably original from the Western Ghats in India.
- Jackfruit Farming is growing day by day due its market demand and health benefits.
- Originally, Jackfruit is a native of India and presently cultivar throughout the tropical low in both the hemispheres.
- It is commonly grown in Burma and Malaysia and to a certain extent in Brazil.
- In India, Jackfruit plantations are mostly done in Bihar, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Orissa, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
- Its regular plantations are found only in U.P. where marginal orchards exist.
- In Other parts of the country, it is rarely grown in Plantations but preferred very much in homesteads or as a shade tree or as a mixed crop.
- It grows throughout South India up to an elevation of 2,400 meters.
- Apart from consuming as fresh fruit, this is also use to prepare some special dishes.
Grown Areas of Jackfruit In India
- In India, Jackfruit is found in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Assam.
Nutritive and Medical Value of Jackfruit
- Jackfruits are use both for culinary purpose and as table fruit but it is mainly use for culinary purpose.
- Tender fruits appear in the market in spring and continue till late summer as popular vegetable.
- Since common vegetables are scare and costly at the time of the year, jackfruit enjoys a high demand and premier price.
- Ripe fruits are also use for preparation of pickles, dehydrates leather, thin papad, soft drinks like nectar, squash and to some extent for canning purposes.
- The rind of the fruit is rich in protein.
- Extract from the rind can be use for jelly making.
- The skin of the fruit and leaves are Excellency cattle feed.
- Jackfruit tree is a valuable timber for making furniture as it rarely attack by white ants.
- The latex from the bark contains resin.
- Sometimes it is use to plug holes in earthen vats and baskets.
- Thus the tree is useful in many ways to the mankind.
- Per 100 gram of jackfruit in Vitamin A , Vitamin C, 77% of Moisture, 9.4% of Carbohydrate, 2.6% of protein, 0.1% of fat, 2% of Iron.
- Jackfruit boosts energy and prevents from anemia.
- It helps in strengthening the bones. Also maintains healthy thyroid.
How Can Jackfruit Farming?
- Jackfruit propagates by seeds and this leads to immense variation and prolong juvenility.
- The seeds are sown immediately after extraction either in beds, polythene bags, and earthen pots or in coconut husk pieces containing enough soil to cover the seeds.
- Heavier seeds should be use for sowing purposes.
- The seeds should be soaked 24 hours in water and thereafter treat either with 25-50 ppm solution of NAA or 500 ppm gibberellic acid which results in improve germination and enhance seedling growth.
- Propagation by vegetative means offers handicap.
- Different methods of grafting have not given encouraging results or success.
- However, inarching and layering have been found effective in multiplying the Jackfruit and it should be done June to August.
- The poor success in budding of jackfruit is probably due to severe oozing out of latex from the freshly cut surfaces.
- Under North Indian conditions, cent per cent success has been repot by patch budding, when it is perform from mid May to mid August after collecting from a defoliate shoots.
- In recent years, grafting has also given encouraging results.
- It has been observe that often there is a poor establishment of air layer shoots in their permanent places because of their non-fibrous and brittle root system.
- Stool layering has proved better as there is no problem of establishment in field due to presence of fibrous roots.
- Any injury to roots or breaking of earth ball will lead to the poor establishment of the plants their permanent position.
Varieties of Jackfruit in India
- Jackfruit Consists of innumerable trees, differing from each other in shape, size, density of tubercles, rind colour, bulb size, fiber content, fruit quality and maturity.
- Many types available under various local names have been originated through clone selection.
- Gulabi, Champa like that of Champak Flower, Hazaric etc. are few examples.
- Cultivated types by consumers, namely, soft flesh and firm flesh.
- Soft Flesh: When fully ripe, the fruits yield to the thrust of a finger easily. The pulp is very juicy and soft. The taste varies from very sweet, sweet acidic to insipid.
- Firm Flesh: The rind does not yield to the thrust of finger easily. The pulp is firm and crispy. The taste is variable in degree of sweetness. Some Types are capable of maintaining their individuality even after propagation by seeds. Like Rudrakshi and Singapore/ Ceylon Jack.
Growing Requirement for Jackfruit Farming
- Proper Jackfruit plantation requires rich and well drain sandy loam soil.
- Soil drainage is of great importance to Jackfruit as is evidence by the sudden decline of numerous trees in the areas suffering from a sudden rise of water level.
- Jack fruit tree cannot tolerate moisture stress but presence of lime and chorine is tolerable to some extent.
- Areas near the river beds are ideally suitable for its cultivation.
- Warm humid plains are suitable for jack fruit cultivation and it flourishes in humid hill slopes up to an elevation of 1,500 meters.
- Quality of fruit deteriorates in higher altitudes but grows satisfactorily in arid and warm plains of South India.
- Cold Weather and frost are harmful to its Cultivation.
- Hot desiccating winds in summer also adversely affect the growth of trees.
Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Jackfruit Farming
- In jackfruit plantation, an application of 75:60:50 g of NPK per year respectively up to 8 years and thereafter, the dose of 8 year taken as the constant dose for subsequent years, should be follow in jackfruit trees.
- It has been observe that the young fruit suffer from browning and mature fruits show the symptoms of developing spongy and cocky tissues along with whitish pockets in the fruit monocarp.
- The problem is found only in Tarai and Bhabar regions of Uttar Pradesh.
- This malady is believe to be cause due to the boron in the soil which can be control by spraying the trees with 15 solution of Borax at monthly intervals start from Jan-May.
- Otherwise add borax 250gram per tree along with fertilizer application.
Water supply/Irrigation in Jackfruit Farming
- In India, hardly any irrigation is given to jackfruit.
- The tree is sensitive to drought, therefore, irrigation during dry periods is considered essential in arid regions for normal plant growth.
- Generally, ring system of irrigation should be adopt for irrigation jackfruit trees as it also economies the use of water.
- For young orchards, hand watering is necessary during first two to three year.
- The frequency of irrigation will depend on the soil moisture condition.
Pests in Jackfruit Farming
- Sliver Leaf: Leaves develop a slivery sheen, cut branches revel red staining. Prune from the end of June until the end of August or in rarely spring. Keep pruning cuts to a minimum, pruning regularly so cut surfaces are small.
- Bacterial Canker: This disease occurs of sunken, dead areas of bark often accompany by gummy ooze. It can kill off entire branches. Also burn or landfill the pruning.
- Glasshouse red spider: Leaves become mottle, pale and cover in webbing on which the mitts can be clearly seen, leaves also drop prematurely. Use biological control in the greenhouse.
- Birds: Birds in Pigeons mostly affects the apricot fruits. It can cause an array of problems including eating seedlings, buds, leaves, fruits and vegetables. Avoid this problem by protect the plants from birds by covering netting.
- Drills: These are a worm’s type. It is attack by drill device galleries that trace the host trees.
- Big-headed Worm: It is a pest that affects many fruit trees. The main damages are cause by the larvae that build galleries in weakling the plant roots which eventually die.
- To avoid this pest use as biological traps feronomas.
Diseases in Jackfruit Farming
- A disease cause primarily by fungi of the genus Puccini and Melampsora, which use the excess humidity to thrive. It means as spots of orange or brown on the leaves. Then a yellow color in the part of the beam.
Moniliosis or Flower Blight
- This is affect flowers that dry. Also produce a blacking of the fruits that are dry on the branches without falling. Apricot tree is infecting by the appearance of cankers on the branches and the sticky liquid oozing out of some parts of the plants.
- This Disease is caused by fungus or Podosphaea Sphaerotheca rate. The first attacks the fruit in summer and leaves in spring. It is produce by white spider web on fruits, leaves and stems. Over time these stains by infection with order plants that keep fungus in the winter and spread their spoors in spring.
- Watering the tree itself will help prevent the disease because the water may be able to clean the spores.
- In some location using a biological fungicide call AQ10.
- It is the parasitic fungus Ampelomyces quisqualis that feeds at the expense of podosphaera.
- Do not use sulfur on Apricot tress.
- It is a gummy substance oozing from the bark. Also causes from diseases to excessive pruning, failure of any component in the substrate, adverse weather conditions, injuries etc.
- In many cases the gumming is an adaptation of the plant itself that covers wounds to prevent invasion of external agents.
- To avoid such an event should be sought and address the cause that produce it.
- Eutipiosis: Most common disease also attacks the vine are often sudden fractures of branches in old trees and the sudden wilting leaves.
- It is a cause that produces gummier in the wounds heal pruning.
- Around the same is in general a lot of resin oozing chancre.
- Then this disease center of the plant and ends up killing her.
- Try to do the pruning day days to prevent the growth of these fungi and seek to reduce pruning old tress.
- The solution is to use a fungicide paint that covers the injuries on the tree after pruning.
- It is affects by the almond and peach trees but sometime affects in the plum and apricots Tress.
- It is produce by Fusicoccum amygdale that cause brown and elongate cankers’ at the base of the knots and yolks branches of the year, lead to the strangling of them and then death by the action of the toxins of the fungus.
- Also attacks the leaves large brown spots.
- Infection occurs through spores spread by rain penetrating wounds more or less large each of the parts of the plant or directly the young trees.
- The solution of this disease removes the affect part of the plant and the use of Fungicides.
Inter-cropping in Jackfruit Farming
- Inter-cropping is way of extra income.
- It starts bearing after 5 to 7 years of its transplanting.
- Suitable corps should be grown year till the trees reach bearing stage.
- Mostly crops like okra, Brinjal, Chilli, Tomato and moong etc.
Storage/Harvest in Jackfruit Farming
- Generally, Jackfruit plants grown completely in 10 years but now some commercial varieties are stand up to fruits in 4 to 5 year of plantation.
- Only you should be proper time harvesting taken so higher fruit production is available.
- Generally jackfruits are available from March to June period.
- The yield depends on the type of soil, whether conditions, variety and farming practices.
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