Growing Black Walnut Tree

By | September 19, 2018

Growing Black Walnut Tree

This information Guide Regarding “Growing Black Walnut Tree”. If you have an interest in Growing Black Walnut Tree please read this full article we introduce all information regarding Growing Black Walnut Tree. so let’s start about Growing Black Walnut Tree…

Introduction Regarding Growing Black Walnut Tree 

  • Walnut is one of the nut fruits and belongs to the family of “Juglandaceae”.
  • The term walnut we name mostly two different trees, the English walnut, and the Black walnut.
  • English walnut (also called Persian walnut) originated in Iran, while Black walnut originated in North America.
  • Persian Walnut is the most important temperature nut grown in India.
  • Major Walnut producing countries in the world are Mexico, USA, China, Ukraine, Turkey, and Iran.
  • Walnuts are popularly known as “Akroot or Akhrot” in India and they are grown in the northwestern regions.
  • Black walnut can reach a height of 100-120 feet, while the average English walnut reaches a height of 80 feet in maturity.
  • Both walnut trees produce chemicals that are toxic to many plants.
  • Black Walnut grows naturally across the Eastern USA but its timber has a worldwide reputation.
  • Growing big Black Walnut trees takes time, lots of time. And time erodes enthusiasm.
  • Walnut heartwood is strong yet relatively light, shock resistant and non-brittle.
  • It is also durable and, most importantly, stable across a range of moisture and temperature conditions, which made it ideal for gun stocks.
  • Whilst the wood of both walnut species can exhibit interesting and attractive grain patterns, it was color that made the American Walnut, and hence the superior American weaponry, distinguishable.
  • In peacetime, these same qualities ensure the best-figured lumber has a high-value market for use in musical instruments, sliced veneer, and designer furniture.
  • Naturally, the highest prices are paid for large clean logs that are suitable for sliced veneer or the rare logs with outstanding grain patterns.
  • The Walnuts are the seeds of a drupe and can be eaten fresh or dry.
  • The nut meat is widely used for baking and it is often used as the additive in various confections.
  • It is widely add to ice-cream, cereal bars, and many other sweets and snacks.

Grown Areas In India – Growing Black Walnut Tree

  • In India, High production of a Black Walnut tree is grown in Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

Nutritive and Medical Value of Black Walnut

  • Walnuts may to help in preventing cancer.
  • Walnuts may help in controlling diabetes.
  • help in reducing the risk of diabetes. Also, help in dealing with stress.
  • help in weight management.
  • Walnuts are heart healthy and improve brain health.
  • Walnuts contain antioxidants that boost the immune system.
  • Also, it is pack with omega-3 fatty acids.
  • Black Walnut is used to treat parasitic worm infections and certain other infections including diphtheria and syphilis.
  • It is also used for leukemia.
  • Some people use Black Walnut as a gargle, apply it to the scalp or hair dye, or put it on the skin to treat wounds.

How Can Growing Black Walnut Tree?

  • As it happens in many fruit trees citrus, apple, nuts etc. a walnut tree grown from seed will not bear fruits for the first 7-10 years of its life.
  • If your purpose is to harvest nuts for edible use every autumn, the quickest and easiest way is to plant a budding tree.
  • But since you want to feel the joy of growing your own tree from seed.
  • The first thing we have to do is search for natural fresh harvest walnuts.
  • This may be more difficult than it sounds because nearly all the shell nuts we can find in the market process, so these seeds will definitely not sprout.
  • In all cases, we need to find seeds that have not been processed in any way.
  • They must entreat, unrest and unheated seeds.
  • It is better to find newly harvest shell walnuts.
  • Once we find the natural seeds during autumn, we have to select at least 10-15 of them.
  • All things are done correctly, only 50% of the seeds or less will germinate, and only a fraction of those will make it to a small seedling and young tree.
  • First, we soak the shell nuts in water for 48-72 hours.
  • Then, we place them inside a plastic bag full of moist sand and we place the bag at the refrigerator for 12-15 weeks.
  • Alternatively, our seeds could be sown during autumn and overwinter naturally in the field, but in such a case they are not protected against squirrels and other enemies.
  • About 12-15 weeks later, some seeds will have normally sprouted.
  • We plant them directly in the field or in individual pots containing special soil mix.
  • We have to plant the seeds superficially, at a depth of 1, 2 inches (3 cm) and cover lightly with soil.
  • Then, we place the pots at a room temperature, close to a wide window, so that the seedlings will have access to plenty of sunlight.
  • The most important thing from now on is to keep the pots moist but not soggy.
  • When the seedlings have reached a height of 6 inches during spring, we can transplant them at a bigger container or directly in the field, provided the last frost has passed.
  • In the wild, walnut trees are propagated by seeds.
  • However, in commercial walnut orchards, walnut trees are propagated by grafting or budding scions in rootstocks that have already been planting in the field.
  • Professional walnut growers benefit from a tree that is a combination of two different plant tissues, the rootstock, and the scion.
  • The rootstock is the lower part of the tree and produces the root system.
  • The scion produces the upper part of the tree and of course, determines nut’s characteristics.
  • Most of the fruit trees are graft or bud when cultivating for profit.
  • Professional growers plant a tree that is a combination of two different plant tissues, the rootstock, and the scion.
  • The rootstock is the lower part of the tree and produces the root system.
  • Selecting the right rootstock is extremely important because the rootstock can protect the whole tree from various soil-borne diseases.
  • The scion produces the upper part of the tree and of course, determines nut’s characteristics.
  • Bud or graft trees come into fruition sooner, produce higher yields and they are more resistant to most commonly found diseases than natural trees are.

Varieties of Black Walnut in India

  • Black Walnut fruit varieties in India are different in states…
  • Himachal Pradesh: Wilson, Gobind, Placentia, Eureka, Franquetfe and Kashmir Budded.
  • Uttaranchal: Chakrata Selections.
  • Jammu and Kashmir: Lake English, Malinovsky and Opex Caulchry.
  • Apricot Fruit in Hindi calls Khumani. Another name is Jardaloo, Khubani, Jaldharu Pandu.

Pear Fruit Farming Study Guide

 

A requirement for Growing Black Walnut Tree

  • In a few words, the most important enemy of English and black walnut trees is night frost during late spring or early fall.
  • Areas with frequent night frosts during the spring should definitely be avoided.
  • In general, the walnut tree cannot tolerate very low and very high temperatures as well as very strong winds.
  • High summer temperatures cause damage to the fruit and may result in the shrinking of nuts.
  • Some small damage can occur roughly at 38°C, but greater damage occurs when temperatures greater than 42°C on average persist.
  • However, among the different varieties, there is a significant difference in terms of their tolerance to high temperatures.
  • Most walnut varieties are sensitive to extremely low winter temperatures.
  • When in dormancy, they can tolerate on average temperatures up to 10°C without suffering serious damage.
  • Each walnut variety has specific cold requirements in order to break the dormancy of the buds.
  • In general, walnut cold requirements range from 450 to 1500 hours, but most varieties have cold requirements ranging from 700 to 1000 hours.
  • If these needs in cold are not satisfied, there will be a delay in bud formation, which will result in low fruit set and production.
  • Walnut tree prefers full sun and well drain soil.
  • Walnut tree thrives in deep, sandy loam, well drain, irrigate and rich in organic matter soil.
  • It can tolerate a wide pH range 5 to 8, but in commercial orchards, most farmers apply lime in order to fix pH around 6,5.
  • The tree is sensitive towards high concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and boron.
  • More suitable sites are the cool riversides, foothills, and seaside areas.
  • Sites that are surrounded by hills, where cold air masses cannot escape easily should be avoided.
  • Sites, where excessive rainwater can stagnate and not drain well, should also be avoided.
  • All walnut varieties are self-fertile, meaning that the pollen can travel from the male parts to the female parts of the same tree and produce nuts.
  • Thus, a single tree can theoretically produce nuts without needing other walnut trees around.
  • In most cases, pollen that is transferred through the wind to the female parts of the same tree is often lost, because at that time the female flower is not receptive.
  • Consequently, the best way to ensure adequate pollination in order to achieve the highest possible fruit set and yield is to ensure cross-pollination by planting two or more varieties.
  • Typical planting distances when we grow walnut trees for wood are 8 X 8 feet, which result in 681 trees per acre, or 1682 trees per hectare.
  • Typical distances when we grow walnut trees for nuts are 17 X 17 feet, which result in 151 trees per acre, or 373 trees per hectare.

Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements for Growing Black Walnut Tree

  • Excellent fertilization of mature walnut trees can be managing adding manure.
  • Many farmers add 10 to 20 tons of manure per hectare every one or two years.
  • When they cannot find manure at a reasonable price, many farmers apply green manure, mainly legumes.
  • In this case, walnut growers sow legumes in the autumn.
  • During the next few months, they add phosphorus and potassium to the field in order to help legumes grow quickly.
  • They finally plow the plants, incorporating them into the soil just before their flowering like spring – April, May.
  • Keep in mind that during the decomposition of organic matter, there is increase in nitrogen consumption.
  • Consequently, many farmers add -at the time of plowing- nitrogen in nitrate form to the soil so as to avoid
  • Any nitrogen deficiencies ask a licensed agronomist.

Water supply/Irrigation for Growing Black Walnut Tree

  • Irrigation is one of the most important operations and is critical for the success of a walnut orchard.
  • During the previous decades, a great percentage of walnut orchards were not irrigated.
  • However, farmers quickly found out that the walnut tree responds greatly to artificial water supply, both in terms of vigorous growth for timber production and in terms of remarkable increase in nut production.
  • Thus, today most of the commercial walnuts orchards are irrigated.
  • As the first rule of thumb, the average commercially grown walnut tree needs 50 inches of precipitation every year.
  • As a second rule of thumb, the walnut trees need more than 50% of the annual water supply during summer like June, July, and August.
  • However, in a very dry season, irrigation should be quickly applied in certain stages.
  • Irrigation during winter has been reporting to increase vegetation growth during spring.
  • Moreover, maximum growth of nuts takes place during the 5th to 7th week after the blossom.
  • If there are no rainfalls, lack of irrigation during this period will result in greater than average percentage of small nuts.
  • Many walnut farmers irrigate the trees at the outer perimeter of the tree’s canopy, where the natural rainfall would effect.
  • The trunk must not be water, as it can favor the spread of some diseases.
  • However, these are just some indicative rules of thumb and common practices and should not be following without making your own research.
  • Every field is different and has different needs.
  • Mostly grown walnut trees are irrigated through the flood, furrow, border strip, sprinkler, and drip systems.

Pests and Diseases -Growing Black Walnut Tree

  • Crown Gal is caused by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens and it usually concerns young trees.
  • The most common symptom is tumors overgrowth that appears in the roots, just above or below the soil line.
  • Infect trees with many galls will gradually become unable to transfer water and nutrients to the upper parts of the tree.
  • As a result, they slowly become weak and they finally die.  The bacterium can survive for many years in the soil.
  • Walnut blight is a bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas juglandis.
  • It is the most common walnut tree disease that affects foliage and nuts.
  • It appears most often in wet and humid spring conditions. Some of the symptoms are that the kernels shrink, wilt, mummify or discolor.
  • Lesions may appear in the tree bark and leaves, while infected new shoots may die. Rainfall favors the rapid spread of disease, as bacteria are transferred through rainwater to new green tissues and infect them.
  • Armillaria root rot, Phytophthora root rot, and Powdery mildew are also common walnut tree diseases.

 

Inter-cropping 

  • Inter-cropping is a way of extra income.
  • Also, the main advantage is intercropping is enrich the soil.

 

Storage/Harvest

  • Walnut growers start harvesting walnuts when about 75% of hulls have split.
  • In most countries, farmers harvest by hand, by shaking the branches so that walnuts can fall into special collection nets that have been put in the ground.
  • In some cases, the nuts are then put in special machines, where the hulls are carefully removed and the nuts can dry properly.
  • From this point onwards, the processing differs on whether each market demands shelled or nutshell nuts.
  • The average walnut tree starts to produce nuts at an age of 8-10 years.
  • However, there are cases in which walnut trees start to produce about 7-10 kg of nuts at an age of 5-7 years.
  • Most commercial walnut orchards reach their peak production level at an age of 30 years or more.
  • Healthy and mature walnut trees produce from 30 to 160 kg of nuts, but this production cannot be achieved every year.
  • The tree has an inherent tendency towards alternate bearing, and it usually yields a good production in every other year.

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