Green Peas Farming (Matar Farming)
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Introduction of Green Peas Farming(Matar Farming)
- Green Peas Farming is one of the most important winter vegetable crops grown on a commercial scale the world over and is consumed either as a fresh succulent vegetable or in processed form.
- If you plant to attempt growing Green Peas in the home garden, it requires consistently cool temperatures with temperatures in the 60s. Otherwise, it may prematurely “button”—form small, button-size heads—rather than forming a single, large, white head.
- India is the second largest producer of peas in the world and accounts for 21 percent of the world production.
- Punjab is the 5th positions largest producer of peas in the country and accounts for 6.7 percent of India’s production.
- It is the second important vegetable crop of Punjab and is grown on an area of 31.3 thousand hectares with an annual production of 315.87 thousand tons.
- The major peas growing districts in the state are Hoshiarpur, Patiala, Amritsar, and Shaheed Bhagat Singh Naga.
- Green Peas is a legume crop; it improves soil fertility by providing nitrogen to the successive crop without the added expense of supplemental fertilizer.
- It’s early maturing varieties fits well between crop rotations of rice-wheat and rice-maize.
- Sowing of early maturing varieties of pea is a profitable proposition because it fetches a higher price in the market.
Grown Areas In India
- In India, Green Peas Farming depends on the varieties and soils.
- Grown states are Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Punjab, Assam, Haryana, Orissa, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh grown.
Nutritive and Medical Value
- Peas is highly nutritive, containing a high percentage of digestible proteins, carbohydrates, fats along with minerals (Ca, P and Mg) and vitamins A, B and C.
- High-quality starch, protein, or oligoside isolates are being extracted from dry pea seeds.
- Because dry seeds contain little anti-nutritional factors, they are used as a protein source.
- Pea is used alone or mixed with other vegetables.
- Also processed for freezing, canning, and dehydration in the immature stage to meet the consumer’s requirement during the off-season.
- The important quality attributes of pea are the dark green color of pods, high chlorophyll content, high TSS, sugars (especially glucose and fructose), good amour and texture.
- There are different quality standards required for differently processed products.
- For canning, the shelled peas should have light green color and are resistant to leaching of chlorophyll into sugar-salt liquid in the can.
How Can Green Peas Farming…?
- Rework the soil just before planting to destroy any weeds and to develop a cold-free seed bed needed for mechanical harvesting.
- Make the earliest plantings in mid-May in central Oklahoma but make sure the soil temperature has been 70°F or above for several days prior to planting.
- Do not plant later than July .
- Southern peas can be planted in rows 20 to 42 inches apart depending upon variety and equipment to be used in planting, cultivation, and harvest.
- Veining and semi-vining varieties require wider spacing within-row spacing of 1-2 seeds per row-foot.
- Bush varieties can be planted in closely spaced rows with 4-6 seeds per row-foot.
- Size of seed determines the weight of seed to plant per acre.
- At a 20-inch row spacing, 30 and 55 pounds are required for small and large-seeded varieties, respectively.
- Seeds can be planted one inThe use of herbicides is becoming more important with mechanical harvesting and as plant populations rise.
- Cultivate just deep enough to control weeds.
- Consult the latest edition of the Extension Agents’ Handbook (E-832) for chemical weed control information.
Varieties of Peas in India
- The crops varieties Early Bejar, Arket, Jawahar and Bonneville are common cultivate Peas Varieties in Farming.
Growing Requirement for Green Peas Farming
- These days you can finite requires a temperature of 18-22 C for optimum germination.
- It can germinate even at 4-5 C and can tolerate mild frost.
- At a temperature of 25oC and above, the percentage of seed germination decreases.
- The high-temperature conditions prevailing at the time of planting results in a buildup of wilt and stem Field complex, which further results in unacceptable crop stand and yield losses.
- Hence, pea attains an ideal growth and development in areas where there is a slow transition from cool to warm weather.
Suitable soil/Land Preparation for Green Peas Farming
- Southern peas will grow on many soil types, but highest yields occur on well-drained, slightly acidic sandy loams.
- High yields are possible on sandy soils if adequate moisture and fertility are provided. Soils known to be droughty will likely produce poor yields unless irrigated.
- Although commercially acceptable yields are unlikely in non-irrigated fields, southern peas are more tolerant of drought and high temperatures than most other vegetable crops.
- Neutral to slightly acid soils (pH 5.5 to 6.5) is preferred by southern peas.
- Soils with a pH above 7.5 and high in calcium should be avoided or chlorosis (iron deficiency) could occur, stunting plant growth and reducing yield.
- Apply lime if soil pH is below 5.5.
Best Planting season for Green Peas Farming
- Accurate spacing is obtained from sized seeds and precision seeders.
- Ridge method is particularly important for early crop sown in the last week of September to mid rest week of October.
- The sowing of a pea should be done with Seed-cum-Fertilizer pea drill on ridges which are 60 cm wide.
- This drill shows two rows of pea which are 25 cm apart on each ridge.
- Ridge sowing for early crop has an advantage.
- Seeds take many days to germinate and often irrigation is required to keep up the right moisture content in the soil.
- In this case, pre-emergence irrigation does not lead to crust formation as the water is not allowed to run over the ridges.
- For flat sowing, there should be proper soil moisture conditions (water conditions) and no pre-emergence irrigation should be given as it results into crust formation.
- Flat sowing method should not be used in medium to heavy textured soils because flood irrigation generally results in crust formation which reduces aeration and nutrient uptake by the plants and ultimately results into yellowing and restricted plant growth.
- For mechanical harvesting, the Flat sowing method should be used only in light textured soils.
Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Green Peas Farming
- In the absence of organic matter, the biological activities in the soil come to stand still.
- It should be supplied in the form of farmyard manure or compost. Eight to ten tons of well-rotted farmyard manure or compost should be applied in an acre of land.
- Farmyard manure should be applied while preparing the land so that it gets mixed up in the soil.
- Farmyard manure should also be supplemented with chemical fertilizers.
- The quantity of the fertilizer required should preferably be ascertained from the condition of the crop rather than strictly adhering to the recommendation.
- On an average, apply 20 kg of nitrogen and 25 kg of phosphorus per acre before sowing.
Water supply/Irrigation in Green Peas Farming
- Soil moisture tensions are typically targeted for less than 25 to 30 kpa during this period.
- Peas have some drought tolerance, but irrigation can double or triple yields in periods of severe droughts.
- This is especially true when water is applied during bloom and early pod development.
- Without irrigation, peas usually suffer during short drought periods; and, although they may produce a crop, the yield can be greatly reduced.
- Excessive rainfall or overhead irrigation at or a few days before bloom stage may delay fruit set and encourage excessive vine growth by interfering with pollination.
- If seeds have to be sown on ridges, then irrigation should be applied immediately after sowing.
- During ridge sowing, care should be taken not to allow the water to overflow the ridges.
- Next irrigation should be given at flowering and then at fruit set, if necessary.
- Pea can be grown as rain fed crop with limited irrigations.
- The total number of irrigations required are 2-4 depending upon the soil type, weather conditions, sowing time and maturity group of the variety.
- On loose sandy type of soils, the frequency of irrigation should be increased.
- Drip irrigation not only enhances the yield of a pea but also results in saving of 30% water over the conventional method of irrigation.
- For this method, so the two rows of green peas on 60 cm wide bed keeping row to row distance of 25 cm.
- Under this system, irrigation should be applied at 3 days interval.
Disease in Green Peas Farming
- Leaf Spot
- Squash bug
Inter-cropping in Green Peas Farming
- Two or three hoeing may be done during the early stage of growth to keep down the weeds and to conserve soil moisture.
- Two or three plants are kept at one place in the hills or beds by thinning the extra plant.
Storage/Harvest for Green Peas Farming
- Peas are harvested in three different stages of maturity—green snaps, green shell and dry.
- Each stage requires a different harvester.
- The commercial snap bean harvesting machines can be used to harvest in the green snap or green shell stage.
- Bush and semi-vining varieties harvest best with the snap bean harvesters.
- For processing, in the green shell stage, peas are harvested by mobile vines (supplied by the processor) these machines shell and clean the peas for processing.
- Harvest time for the green shell stage is specified by the processor and is usually when 35 percent to 40 percent of the pods are dry.
- For dry pea harvest, small grain combines are usually used to cut and thresh the peas.
- Peas are normally defoliated with a chemical defoliant (E-832) or occasionally windrowed to speed drying prior to threshing.
- Before selecting any harvester, consider row spacing, varieties, and available markets for the peas
- Multiple hand harvesting is still utilized by fresh market growers for both bush and vining types.
- Southern peas that have a vining growth habit can be harvested every five to seven days for three to four weeks; bush-types are normally a once-over harvest.
- Because of their concentrated flowering and fruit-set. Yields of 150 bushels possible.
- Most southern peas in Oklahoma are produced under contract with a processor for canning, freezing or dry peas.
- One fresh market peas are produced and these are hand harvested or harvested by machine and packed in baskets or crates for shipment to local markets.
- Shipment of fresh peas to distant markets must include proper refrigeration and relative humidity to maintain quality.
- Fresh peas have an approximate shelf life of six to eight days when stored at 40 F and 95 percent relative humidity.
- Dry peas are mechanically harvested and hauled bulk to processing stations where they are cleaned, graded, stored and fumigated prior to packaging and marketing.
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