Ginger Farming Guide

By | October 23, 2018

Ginger Farming

This Information Guide related to Ginger Farming. If you are interested in Ginger Farming please read this information guide.

Introduction of Ginger Farming

  • Ginger is a herbaceous perennial, the rhizomes of which are used as a spice.
  • India is a leading producer of ginger in the world.
  • The ginger plant looks slender like a reed which is 3-4 feet tall.
  • The leaves are thin and green in color.
  • The beauty of the plant is that it produces pink and white flower buds in clusters which bloom into yellow flowers.
  • Some people use this plant for landscaping owing to this precise reason.
  • When the stalk starts withering, a crop is harvested and rhizomes are wasting.

Grown Areas of Ginger Farming in India

  • Snake Gourd farming is grown in all over India.
  • However states namely Karnataka, Orissa, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and Gujarat together contribute 65% to the country’s total production.

 

Nutritive and Medical Value of Ginger Farming

  • Ginger has long been using for the culinary and medicinal purpose.
  • Possible health benefits include reducing nausea, pain, and inflammation.
  • Ginger can be used to make tea, chopped or crushed in curries and dishes, and dry or crystallized in sweets and confectionary.
  • It prevents colon cancer and constipation.
  • In 100 grams of the fresh ginger root, 79 calories, 18 g of carbohydrate, 4 g of dietary fiber, 0 gram of sugar, 4 g of protein, 33 mg of potassium and vitamin B6 available.

How Can Grow Ginger Farming?

  • Ginger is propagating by portions of rhizomes known seed rhizomes.
  • Carefully preserve seed rhizomes are cut into small pieces of 2.5-5.0 cm length weighing 20-25 g each having one or two good buds.
  • The seed rate varies from region to region and with the method of cultivation adopt.
  • In India, the seed rate varies from 1500 to 1800 kg/ha.
  • At higher altitudes, the seed rate may vary from 2000 to 2500 kg/ha.
  • The seed rhizomes are treating with mancozeb 0.3% for 30 minutes, shade dry for 3-4 hours and plant at a spacing of 20-25 cm along the rows and 20-25 cm between the rows.
  • The seed rhizomes bits are placed in shallow pits prepare with a hand hoe and well-decomposed farmyard manure and a thin layer of soil and level.
  • Though transplanting in ginger is not conventional, it is found profitable.
  • A transplanting technique in ginger by using single bud sprouts about 5 g has been standardized to produce good quality planting material with reducing cost.
  • The yield level of ginger transplants is on-par with conventional planting system.
  • The technique involves raising transplants from single sprout seed rhizomes in the pro-tray and plant in the field after 30-40 days.
  • The advantages of this technology are the production of healthy planting materials and reduction in seed quantity and reduce cost on planting material.
  • Mulching the beds with green leaves or organic wastes is essential to prevent soil splashing and erosion of soil due to heavy rain.
  • It also adds organic matter to the soil.

 

Varieties of Ginger in India

  • High dry Ginger- Maramn, Nadia, Karakkal
  • Green Ginger- Rio-de-Janeiro, Varadha, Wynad Local.
  • High volatile oil- Sleeva Local, Himachal, Naraspattam.
  • High oleoresin- Emad Chemad, China.

 

Growing Requirement in Ginger Farming

  • Ginger grows in warm and humid climate.
  • It is mainly cultivated in the tropics from sea level to an altitude of above 1500 MSL.
  • It can be grown both under rainfed and irrigated conditions.
  • For successful cultivation, ginger requires a moderate rainfall at the sowing time until the rhizomes sprout, heavy and well distributes showers during the growing period.
  • Dry weather for about a month before harvesting.

 

Suitable soil/Land Preparation in Ginger Farming

  • Ginger farming is best in well-drained soils like sandy loam, clay loam or lateritic loam.
  • A friable loam with a ph of 6.0 to 6.5 rich in humus is ideal.
  • However, being an exhausting crop, it is not desirable to grow ginger in the same soil year after year.
  • The crop performs well in a temperature range of 19 to 28 C and a humidity of 70 to 90%.
  • Once harvested, it is not advisable to cultivate ginger in the same soil for a period of two years.
  • A highly acidic or alkaline soil interferes with the growth of ginger.
  • The land is to be plow 4 to 5 times or dug thoroughly with receipt of early summer showers to bring the soil to the fine tilt.
  • Beds of about 1 m width, 30 cm height and of convenient length are prepared with an interspace of 50 cm in between beds.
  • In the case of irrigated crop, ridges are formed 40 cm apart.
  • In areas prone to rhizome rot disease and nematode infestations, solarization of beds for 40 days using transparent polythene sheets is recommended.

 

Best planting season for Ginger Farming

  • Mainly the optimum time of seed sowing varies greatly depending upon climate, varieties and their temperature requirement for growth.
  • The best time for planting ginger in the West coast of India is during the first fortnight of May with the receipt of pre-monsoon showers.
  • Under irrigated conditions, it can be planted well in advance during the middle of February or early March.
  • Early planting with the receipt of summer showers during February-March results in higher yield and reduces disease incidence.

A spacing between Plants for Ginger Farming

  • The optimal plant population per acre depends upon the plant’s growth habit like compact, medium or spreading, sizes like small, medium or large at maturity, the vigor of specific cultivars, climate, soil moisture and nutrient availability, soil productivity, and intended use.

 

Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Ginger Farming

  • Ginger requires heavy manuring.
  • Application of well rotten cow dung or compost 2.5 to 3 tonnes/ acre may be made as a basal dose while planting the rhizomes in the pits.
  • In addition, application of neem cake 800 kg/ acre is also desirable.

 

Water supply/Irrigation in Ginger Farming

  • Ginger is cultivated as a rainfed crop in high rainfall areas and irrigated crop in fewer rainfall areas where distribution is not uniform.
  • Ginger farming requires 1300-1500 mm of water during its crop cycle.
  • The critical stages for irrigation are during its crop cycle.
  • The critical stages for irrigation are during germination, rhizome initiation, and rhizome development stages.
  • The first irrigation should be done immediately after planting and subsequent irrigations are given at intervals of 7 to 10 days in conventional irrigation.
  • Sprinklers and drip system can also be employed for better water use efficiency and enhance yield.

 

Pests/Disease:

  • Red Beetles
  • Fruit Flies
  • Downy Mildew
  • Epilachna beetle
  • Mosaic virus etc.
  • Most of the diseases can be controlled if the crop is managed properly.
  • Proper Pesticides can be a spray to control the occurrence of the pests.

 

Inter-cropping in Ginger Farming

  • Intercropping is growing of two or more crops of dissimilar growth pattern on the same piece of land and time.
  • Intercropping will also help in soil improvement by fixing the nitrogen in the soil.
  • Crop rotation is allowed by ginger.
  • The crops most commonly rotate with ginger are tapioca, ragi, paddy, gingerly, maize and vegetables.
  • In India, ginger is also mix cropped with ragi, red gram, and castor.
  • Ginger is also grown as an intercrop in coconut, areca nut, coffee and orange plantations in Kerala and Karnataka.
  • In ginger farming, crop rotation using tomato, potato, chilies, brinjal, and peanut should be avoided, as these plants are hosts for the wilt causing organism.

 

Storage/Harvest in Ginger Farming

 

  • Ginger attains full maturity in 210-240 days after planting.
  • Harvesting of ginger for vegetable purpose starts after 180 days base on the demand.
  • However, for making dry ginger, the mature rhizomes are harvest at full maturity.
  • When the leaves turn yellow and start drying.
  • Irrigation is stopped one month before harvest and the rhizome clumps are lifted carefully with a spade or digging fork.
  • In large-scale cultivations, tractor or tiller drew harvesters are also used.
  • The dry leaves, roots, and soil adhering on the rhizomes are manually separated.
  • Late harvest is also done, as the crop does not deteriorate by leaving it for some months underground.
  • In India, domestic market prefers fresh green ginger for culinary use while two types of dried ginger.
  • Like bleached and unbleached are produce for the export purpose.
  • The most important criteria for assessing the suitability of ginger rhizomes for particular processing purposes is the fiber content, volatile-oil content and the pungency level.
  • Processing of ginger to produce dry ginger involves two stages.
  • Like peeling of the ginger rhizomes to remove to the outer skin and the sun drying to a safe moisture level.
  • Polishing of dry ginger is done to remove the dry skin and the wrinkles develop on the surface during the drying process.

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