Garlic Farming

By | October 30, 2018

Garlic Farming

This Information Guide related to Garlic Farming. If you are interested in Garlic Farming please read this information guide.

Garlic Farming

Introduction of Garlic Farming

  • Garlic is one of the important bulb crops.
  • Garlic is a bulbous plant belongs to Amaryllidaceous family.
  • Gallic plant growing to a height of 4 ft and produces flowers.
  • It can be propagated both sexually as well as vegetative.
  • For cultivation. Garlic farming is propagated asexually by sowing the cloves.
  • There are different varieties of garlic for a different use.
  • It is used as a spice or condiment through India.
  • The compound bulb of garlic consists of several small bulblets or cloves.
  • Garlic is said to contain antibiotic substances that inhibit the growth of certain bacteria and fungi.

Grown Areas of Garlic Farming in India

  • Garlic is cultivated in India states like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Gujarat.
  • Mostly All over In India grew Garlic Framing.

Nutritive and Medical Value of Garlic Farming

  • Garlic is a plant in the onion family that’s grown for its distinctive taste and health benefits.
  • It contains sulfur compounds which are believed to bring some of the health benefits.
  • Garlic is low in calories and rich in vitamin C, Vitamin B6, and manganese.
  • It also contains trace amounts of various other nutrients.
  • Garlic supplements are known to boost the function of the immune system.
  • Also helpful in common illnesses like the flu and common cold.
  • High doses of garlic appear to improve blood pressure for those with known high blood pressure.
  • Garlic supplements seem to reduce total and LDL cholesterol, particularly in those who have high cholesterol.
  • Garlic Contains antioxidants that protect against cell damage and aging.
  • It may reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
  • Garlic may improve physical performance in lab animals and people with heart disease.
  • Garlic appears to have some benefits for bone health by increasing estrogen levels in females.

How Can Grow Garlic Farming?

  • Garlic is grown from cloves of well-develop, mature garlic bulbs.
  • The cloves are separated from the basal plate which is where the roots grow from.
  • The process of separating the cloves from bulbs is call cracking.
  • The cloves must break away from the bulb clean simply leaving behind the basal plate.
  • It is advisable to crack the bulb as nearer to planting time as possible.
  • The cloves must be planted within 24 hours of cracking so that the root nodules do not dry away.
  • The basal plate of the clove must be undamaged as that is the place from where roots develop.
  • Typically, bigger cloves are used for garlic planting while smaller cloves are rejecting.
  • Some people use the smaller, reject cloves for pickling.
  • Cloves to be used for planting must be dipped in 0.1% carbendazim solution just before sowing.
  • This reduces the incidence of fungal diseases.
  • They are then planted perpendicular to the ground.
  • The distance between two garlic plants must be at least 10 cm.

Varieties of Garlic in India

  • Some varieties of Garlic Farming are Bhīma Omkar, Bhīma Purple, Agro-found White, Yamuna Safed, Yamuna Safed-2, Yamuna Safed- 3, Godavari, Shweta, etc.

Growing Requirement in Garlic Farming

  • Garlic cultivation needs a combination of different types of climate.
  • It needs a cool and moist climate for bulb development and vegetative growth while for maturity the climate must be warm and dry.
  • However, it cannot tolerate extreme cold or hot conditions.
  • Exposing the young plants to a temperature lower than 20 C for 1 or 2 months would hasten the bulb formation.
  • A prolonged exposure to lower temperature would, however, reduce the yield of the bulbs.
  • Bulbs may be produced at the axis of the leaves.
  • A cooler growing period gives higher yield warmer growth conditions.
  • The optimal day length requirement for bulb formation is 13-14 hours for long day garlic and 10-12 hours for short day garlic.

Suitable soil/Land Preparation in Garlic Farming

  • Although garlic can grow in different types of soil, loamy soil with natural drainage is optimum for this crop.
  • It grows at an altitude of 1200 to 2000 m above sea level.
  • It is sensitive to acidic and alkaline soils.
  • A ph of 6-8 is suitable for optimal growth of garlic.
  • A clayey, water-logging type soil is also not suitable for garlic growing.
  • Soils with rich organic content, good moisture, high amount of nutrients aid in proper bulb formation.
  • A heavy soil with less moisture and more waterlogging would result in deformed bulbs.
  • Soils with poor drainage capacity cause discolored bulbs.
  • The two types of land preparation for garlic farming are with tillage and without tillage or zero tillage.
  • With tillage method of land preparation for garlic is similar to that for corn, soybean, and other upland crops.
  • The field is plowed and harrowed twice or more at seven days interval or less.
  • A tractor-mounted motivator can also be used.
  • Without tillage method of land, preparation usually practices in the lowland rice fields after the harvest of play.
  • Rice straw and weeds are cut close to the ground.
  • If the soil is too wet, the field is allowed to dry until the desired moisture level is attained.
  • Canals are usually constructed around the paddies to ensure no standing water after heavy rain or irrigation.

Best planting season for Garlic Farming

  • Mainly the optimum time of seed sowing varies greatly depending upon climate, varieties and their temperature requirement for growth.
  • In India, garlic is a plant as both Kharif (June-July) and rabbi (October-November) crop it depends on the regions.
  • This both crops are grown in most of all over India.

Planting in Garlic Farming

A spacing between Plants for Garlic Farming

  • The optimal plant population per acre depends upon the plant’s growth habit like compact, medium or spreading, sizes like small, medium or large at maturity, the vigor of specific cultivars, climate, soil moisture and nutrient availability, soil productivity, and intended use.
  • The distance of planting varies from 15 cm* 15cm to 20cm* 10cm to 25 cm.

 Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Garlic Farming

  • Farmyard manure or compost applies at the time soil preparation per acre.
  • Fustigation is an efficient method of using drip irrigation to apply fertilizers.
  • The drip emitters are used as carries of both water and crop nutrients.
  • At the time of planting a basal dose of 30 kg nitrogen per acre is applied.
  • Applying nitrogenous fertilizers through drip irrigation is more efficient.
  • The nutrients are directly applied to the root zone.
  • Loss of nitrogen through groundwater leaching is reducing.

Water supply/Irrigation in Garlic Farming

Irrigation in Garlic Farming

  • Garlic is a bulb crop producing shallow roots.
  • It, therefore, requires a good amount of moisture- more than water.
  • Perhaps the biggest challenge in garlic cultivation is being able to moisture it right.
  • Too much water would result in water stress and thus splitting of the bulbs.
  • Too little water or moisture level again means under-develops bulbs.
  • The best way is to irrigate the crop frequently.
  • Two times water requires first is immediately after planting.
  • The second one is an interval of one week to 10 days depending on the moisture content in the soil.
  • Waterlogging is the development of a disease like purple blotch and basal rot.
  • The best irrigation system of garlic farming is sprinkler and drip irrigation.
  • The drip irrigation flow rate of the emitters must be 4 liters per hour.
  • Sprinkler irrigation flow rate must be 135 liters per hour.

Pests/Disease:

  • Purple Blotch. Controlling by use of spraying 0.23% mancozeb, 0.1% propiconazole every 15 days after 30 days of planting or immediately when symptoms effect.
  • Stem phylum blight. Controlling by use of the same method of avoiding Purple Blotch.
  • Irish yellow Spot.
  • Avoid crop stress.
  • Control Thrips.
  • Use Healthy planting material.
  • Most of the diseases can be controlled if the crop is managed properly.
  • Proper Pesticides can be a spray to control the occurrence of the pests.

Inter-cropping in Garlic Farming

  • Intercropping is growing of two or more crops of dissimilar growth pattern on the same piece of land and time.
  • Intercropping will also help in soil improvement by fixing the nitrogen in the soil.
  • Crop rotation is allowed by Garlic Farming but all the plants not impossible.

Storage/Harvest in Garlic Farming

  • Garlic is ready to harvest within 120-150 days of sowing depending on the variety.
  • They are ready when the leaves start yellowing and become dry.
  • The bulbs are then pulling out.
  • Sheath cut near and roots are trimmed.
  • They are then sun-dried for a week.
  • This process is important for the hardening of the bulbs.
  • Before storing they are graded according to the size and weight.
  • Garlic cab is store at room temperature of up to 8 months.
  • Before storing it must be sun-dried thoroughly develops on it fungus develops on it during the storage period.

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