Cowpea Farming Detail Study Guide

By | October 13, 2018

Cowpea Farming

This Information Guide related to Cowpea Farming. If you are interested in Cowpea Farming please read this information guide.

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Introduction of Cowpea Farming

  • Cowpea is leguminous crops that can be used to provide vegetable and grain for food.
  • It is grown across India for seeds, green pods, animal fodder, and organic green manure.
  • Cowpea can withstand drought, short growing period and its multi-purpose use makes it an attractive for farmers.
  • It is grown drought-prone areas with low rainfall.
  • It is quick growing thus suppress weeds during the initial stage.
  • It is suitable for a variety of intercropping system.
  • The cowpea leaves are a good source of Vitamins A, B, and C and are rich in calcium, phosphorus, carbohydrates proteins and carbohydrates.
  • Dry seeds contain protein and fiber.
  • Dry mature seeds are also suitable for boiling and canning.
  • It is cultivated in irrigated areas of Punjab.


Grown Areas of Cowpea Farming In India

  • It is grown all over in India.
  • In India, major Cowpea Farming states are Punjab, Gujarat, and West Bengal.

Nutritive and Medical Value of Cowpea

  • Cowpea is very good sources of Vegetarian protein.
  • 100 grams of dry seeds contain 336 calories, and 42% of the recommended daily values of protein.
  • It is excellent sources of servable B complex vitamins like foliate, thiamin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, and niacin.
  • They are also good sources of potassium.
  • Potassium is present inside cell and body fluids, which counters pressing effects of sodium on the heart and thereby decreases blood pressure.
  • The dietary fiber also helps keep the overall digestive system in Check.
  • It is used for blood flow and keeps the arteries and blood vessels in good shape to keep the heart performing properly.
  • Digestive system Healthy.
  • It helps in Blood Circulation.
  • Prevents to anemia.
  • Also good for the weight loss.
  • A healthy glowing skin is often the result of advent hydration paired with an antioxidant-rich diet.

How Can Grow Cowpea Farming?

  • Select suitable site with require production requirements.
  • Choice of variety depends on the agro-ecological zone,
  • Some improve varieties are suitable for dry areas.
  • Foe gain production, color and size of seeds are important of consumers.
  • Seeds use in Cowpea farming for sowing must be having a genuine source.
  • You should check for hardness and diseased, immature, shrunken and deformed seeds.
  • Cowpea Farming is directly grown from seed.
  • Depending on the purpose for production, it can either be grown as a sole crop or intercrop with cereals such as maize, sorghum or pearl millet.
  • Production is mainly rain fed, however with irrigation is also used for commercial production.
  • Planting should be done at the onset of rains for rainfed cultivation.
  • The spacing varies depending on the production system.
  • When Produced as a green vegetable,
  • They have commonly grown as a monocarp in rows 30 to 40 cm apart with 8 to 12 cm between plants or 60 between the rows and 20-30 cm between plants.
  • Planting depth is 2.5-5 cm depending on the environmental condition.
  • Deeper Planting is recommended the drier areas.
  • Local seeds variety should be treated with a fungicide before planting.

Cowpea Farming Detail Guide

Varieties of Cowpea in India


  • Pusa Phalguni, which is best for sowing as a summer crop.
  • Pusa Barsati is best for Rainy season.
  • Pusa Dofasli is best for summer as well as rainy season.


Growing Requirement in Cowpea Farming

  • Cowpea thrives very well in warm seasons, not in cold and winter seasons.
  • An area where rainfall is more than average is not suitable for Cowpeas Farming.
  • Cowpea crop requires and does well in moist weather.
  • Production altitude varies from sea level to below 2000m above sea level depending on the variety.
  • Cowpeas Farming can grow under rainfall from 400 to 700 mm per year.
  • The plants have a great tolerance to waterlogging.
  • Well- distributed rainfall is important for normal growth and development of cowpeas.
  • Cowpea Farming best in warm conditions.
  • The optimum temperature for growth and development is around 20-35 C.
  • The crop is not tolerant of cold soils.

Suitable soil/Land Preparation in Cowpea Farming

  • Cowpea is grown on a wide range of soils but the crop shows a preference for sandy soils, which tend to be less restrictive on root growth.
  • It is more tolerant of infertile and acid soils than many other crops.
  • Cowpea Farming can in a PH range of 5.6 to 6.5.
  • You should make sure the soil is rich in Organic matter, adding Farm Yard Manure will make the soil more fertile.
  • Land should be plowed and harrowed.
  • To land should be prepared by giving five to six ploughings before planting the Cowpeas seeds.
  • Then ridged or left as flat seedbeds after harrowing.

Best Planting season for Cowpea Farming

  • Mainly the optimum time of seed sowing varies greatly depending upon climate, varieties and their temperature requirement for growth.
  • The time of sowing depends on the type of crop.
  • Spring season cowpea crop like February to March.
  • Kharif season cowpea crop like May to June.
  • Rabi season cowpea crop like October to November.

Spacing Between Plants for Cowpea Farming

  • The optimal plant population per acre depends upon the plant’s growth habit like compact, medium or spreading, sizes like small, medium or large at maturity, the vigor of specific cultivars, climate, soil moisture and nutrient availability, soil productivity, and intended use.
  • Accurate spacing is obtained from sized seeds and precision seeders.

Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Cowpea Farming

  • Fertilizer application in Cowpea Farming production depends on soil fertility.
  • As a legume, it does not require a high rate of nitrogen fertilization because its roots have nodules in which soil bacteria call Rhizobia help fix nitrogen from the air.
  • Seed can be inoculated with the appropriate Rhizobium species for optimum nitrogen fixation; however, nodule will generally form on Cowpeas farming.
  • Where soils are highly eroded an application of dry compost or manure is beneficial.

Water supply/Irrigation in Cowpea Farming

  • In Cowpea Farming, Irrigation depends on type season, if it is a rainy season; no water is given for the cowpea crop.
  • Before rainy season couples of irrigations are preferred in Cowpea Farming.


  • Powdery mildew
  • Leaf Spot
  • The most common virus disease on Cowpea Farming aphid-borne mosaic pot virus.
  • It is transmitted by aphids.
  • They cause irregular light and dark green mosaic patterns on the leaves.
  • Plants may be stunted and fail to produce normal pods.
  • African bollworm Flower thrips pollen and Pod sucking Bugs also available in cowpea farming.
  • Plant resistant varieties use for avoid Disease.
  • Remove alternative hosts of virus disease.
  • Timely control of weeds.
  • Use healthy, disease-free seeds rather than saving seed from a crop that could be infected.
  • Use recommended fungicides and insecticides to pests.

Inter-cropping in Cowpea Farming

  • Intercropping is growing of two or more crops of dissimilar growth pattern on the same piece of land and time.
  • Cowpea Farming is a seed planted about 20 to 40 cm apart as an intercrop with pearl millet, sorghum or maize at wide spacing.
  • Cowpea serves as a security crop in the cause of failure of the main crops.
  • They improve soil fertility when grown in rotation with other crops such as cereals.

Storage/Harvest in Cowpea Farming

  • Uprooting the entire plant at the 3-5 true leaf stage before the leaves become too mature and dual-purpose production.
  • Where sequential leaf harvests are made during the vegetative phase of plant growth, followed by seed production at the end of the season.
  • Harvesting Cowpea at 7 days interval gives higher leaf vegetable yields.
  • Higher grain yields are obtained when no leaf harvesting is done to the crop at its vegetative phase.
  • For dual purpose production, sequential leaf harvests are made during the vegetative stage of the crop followed by seed harvesting at the end of the season.
  • This system predominates with most subsistence growers who practice intercropping.
  • Pods should be harvest when the pods have turned brown.
  • Pods are threshed, dried and storage dust use to protect the seeds from storage pests such as weevils.
  • For the cowpeas seed market, quality of seed is important, so care during harvesting and post-harvest handling is important to avoid crack or split seed.
  • The leaves may be dried and stored for later use.


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