Composting Business in 4 Phase

By | May 13, 2018

Composting Business in 4 Phase


A Composting is a microbiological conversion of organic residues of plant and animal origin to manure rich in humus and nutrients by various micro-organisms including bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the presence of oxygen. During the process it releases by products such as carbon dioxide, water and heat.

Opportunity In Composting Business

  • Due to huge production of MSW and improper management practices, the country is facing a lot of environmental effects as well spending huge amount of fund in the solid waste management. The major problem is the composition of MSW in All over the World and the practices being followed. Since disposal and land filling is the major practice being followed, it is having a huge impact on environment by greenhouse gas emission, leach ate production and other air borne diseases.
  • The primary reason is only due to the 40-60% composition of organic waste in the MSW (Municipal Solid Waste). The best alternative for the issue is the source segregation of wet and dry waste at the generation point and opting suitable treatment process.
  • Many government policies have recommended composting and vermin-composting for the processing of organic (vegetable) waste as the sustainable method. Composting of vegetable waste may reduce the environmental impact on climate change by 40–70% compared to land filling and incineration.
  • If You Ready for Solid Waste Management and make a composting , you have large chance to solve big problem of the world and make a health of all the world and you make a Wealthy company in a few Years.



Phase 1 : ROTARY DRUM composting of vegetable waste.

2 : The best combination ratio were compared with different composting methodologies such as pile composting (Windrow composting)operated in agitated, passive and active aeration mode; and vermicomposting.

3: The effects of waste carbide sludge addition and white rot fungi inoculation were performed for improved treatment efficiency.

In phase 4:  the microbial diversity of the best combination ,Sampling and Analysis.



  • Vegetable waste, cow dung, saw dust and dry leaves were use for the preparation of different waste mixtures. Vegetable waste can collect from different hostel . Dust bin was kept in the mess of each hostel and the waste are collect for the experiments. Fresh cow dung was obtain from nearby village. Saw dust are purchase from a nearby saw mill. Dry leaves are collect from the nearby village . All the materials ere mixe together in different proportions for making the compost.
  • Table  provides initial characterization of waste materials used for preparing compost.
  • The observe values ere found very much optimum for the waste materials to produce compost.

Table : Initial characterization of waste materials


Parameters Waste materials
Vegetable Waste Cow dung Sawdust
pH 5.23±0.02 7.92±0.01 6.86±0.02
Electrical conductivity (dS/m) 1.88±0.01 3.10±0.02 1.06±0.02
Moisture content (%) 91.20±2.22 75.14±0.52 41.02±0.32
Total organic carbon (TOC) (%) 49.84±2.22 32.22±1.24 53.44±1.22
Total nitrogen (%) 2.59±0.07 1.35±0.20 0.55±0.02
Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH4-N) (%) 0.65±0.04 0.36±0.04 0.05±0.02
Total phosphorous (mg/L) 6.6±0.25 7.8±0.41 1.22±0.05
Available phosphorus (mg/L) 1.10±0.14 1.15±0.04 0.61±0.06
C/N ratio 19±0.24 23.46±0.40 95±2.16
Sodium (Na) (g/kg dry matter) 2.6±0.8 1.25±0.12 0.62±0.08
Potassium (K) (g/kg dry matter) 2.82±0.6 8.25±0.65 1.95±0.15
Calcium (Ca) (g/kg dry matter) 3.82±0.65 1.7±0.25 0.95±0.20
Iron (Fe) (g/kg dry matter) 4.95±1.5 8.55±0.20 2.9±0.25
Nickel (Ni) (mg/kg dry matter) 42±1.25 22.2±3.8 245±2.65
Chromium (Cr) (mg/kg dry matter) 23.5±1.5 130±2.5 142±2.75
Manganese (Mn) (mg/kg dry matter) 164±3.5 160±2.0 135±3.25
Cadmium (Cd) (mg/kg dry matter) 68.2±0.08 45±2.5 72.15±2.10
Copper (Cu) (mg/kg dry matter) 45.6±2.7 36±1.5 42±2.77
Lead (Pb) (mg/kg dry matter) 32±0.95 86±3.5 146.35±3.0
Zinc (Zn) (mg/kg dry matter) 160.5±4.5 130±4 125±2.3
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) (mg/L) 4300±20 440±16 480±30
Biological oxygen demand (BOD) 1950±30 120±20 250±20
CO2 evolution (mg/g VS/day) 26±2.83 17.2±0.2 13.2±0.6
Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) (mg/g 29.4±0.8 18.9±0.7 10.9±0.54


PHASE : 1 –


Vegetable waste collected from different hostel mess was chopped into 1 to 2 cm size and mixed along with cow dung and saw dust. After that, the different waste combinations were mixed together before feeding into the reactor.

The inner side of the drum is covered with an anti-corrosive coating. The drum is mounted on four rubber rollers attached to a metal stand and is rotate manually with its handle.

In order to ensure appropriate mixing, agitation and aeration of the wastes during rotation, 40×40 mm angles were welded longitudinally inside the drum.


In addition, two adjacent holes of 10 cm each are made on top of the drum to drain out the excess water. The capacity of the pilot scale rotary drum batch reactor was decided keeping in view of the capability of a single person who can handle around 150 kg of wastes by manual rotation.

The composting period of 20 days was decide base on higher degradation and stabilization of waste material in In-vessel composting reactors .

Manual turning was done at every 24 h through one complete rotation of the rotary drum to ensure that the material on the top portion moved to the central portion, where it was subjected to higher temperature.

PHASE : 2 –



  • The composting materials were mix together and made to form a trapezoidal shape with length 2.13 m, width 0.61 m and height 0.55 m.
  • The compost was prepare in 5:4:1 ratio with 10 kg dry leaves and the mass was turned manually on every third day for agitate pile and samples were collect from six different locations mainly from the mid and end portions of the piles to make up 500 g to form a homogenous sample.
  • Passive operation are carry out by placing a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe on a 10 cm layer bed of old compost.
  • The PVC pipe was 7 cm diameter with holes of 2.5 cm diameter drill at every 20 cm distance for the air flow at every side starting from the centre.
  • After making the combinations in (5:4:1) ratio along with dry leaves, the mixed waste materials were discharged on the bed with the pipe in the center of the composting mass.



  • Vermicomposting  ere in duplicate in curve bamboo containers (reactors) . Temperature are maintaine at 25±1oC which is the optimum temperature. The earthworm weight was calculate according to the weight of the feedstock added and the number of days for experimentation, based on the literature suggest.
  •  Earthworms can consume materials half of their body weight per day under favourable conditions.
  • The moisture level are maintain about 60-70% throughout the composting period by periodic sprinkling of adequate quantity of tap (potable) water.
  • To prevent moisture loss, the reactors were covered with gunny bags. The proper aeration are provide by perforate reactor design and periodic turning of waste mixture.
  • The reactor are design for a total weight of 2.5 kg for 45 days (based on worm mass added) composting period.


Phase : 3


The waste combinations during Waste carbide sludge (WCS) addition and fungus inoculation.

In Phase 3 you can experimental on composting to adding chemical . like Waste combination during waste carbide sludge addition. And Waste combination during fungal addition.

Make a note on your experiment result for improvement of your compost and analyzing your compost quality performance.

Waste carbide sludge

Waste carbide sludge

Table:  Waste combination during waste carbide sludge addition

Experiment         Waste materials



Cow dung








WCS (%)


(kg) (kg)
Trial 1 (WCS) 45 36 9 10 100 0
Trial 2 (WCS) 45 36 9 10 100 1
Trial 3 (WCS) 45 36 9 10 100 2
Trial 4 (WCS) 45 36 9 10 100 3

Windrow Composting Process

Table : Waste combination during fungal addition

Experiment           Waste materials









Total    Fungus


(kg) (kg) (kg) time
Trial 1 (-) 45 36 9 10 100       —
Trial 2 (Fungus) 45 36 9 10 100       0th
Trial 3 (Fungus) 45 36 9 10 100       8th


PHASE : 4 –


A total of 500 g and 200 g sample was collect from composting and vermicomposting reactors for complete analysis.

The sample are prepare by taking representative samples from 9 different points mainly from the mid span and end terminals of the pilot-scale rotary drum composter after drum rotation and pile so as to ensure homogenized sample.

These homogenized samples are collect on every two day interval for drum composting, three day interval period for pile composting and 15 day interval period for vermicomposting.

Finally the collect samples are mix thoroughly to make a homogenize sample.

Triplicate samples are collect and air dry immediately, ground to pass through 0.2 mm sieve and store for physico-chemical analysis. The sub-samples were either use or store at 4oC for biological analysis of the wet sample within 2 days.

  • After Analysis make and decide final product (compost). Any more details about composting make a comment below now . we will help you as soon as possible . Thank You
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