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This Information guide is regarding the Cauliflower Farming. If you are interested in Cauliflower Farming Read this full information guide.
Introduction of Cauliflower Farming
- Cauliflower is a member of the Cruciferae mustard family.
- Cauliflowers are a crop of the winter season.
- But, due to storage technologies and a variety of hybrid seeds, you can enjoy cauliflowers at any time of the year.
- The curd or the middle flowery portion is usually the edible part of the flower.
- Though, in some cases, the leaves are also used.
- Cauliflower is an important vegetable worldwide.
- It has a huge market demand and economic importance.
- Commercial cultivation cauliflowers can give you a lot of profit.
- Like any other crop management technique, you need to follow the basic methods of farming.
- If you want a good yield and healthy crop, you must adopt modern techniques of farming and cultivation.
- You also need to keep a few things in mind such as which soil to use, how to irrigate, which fertilizers to use and how much etc.
- Only after following these, you can expect huge profits.
- Cauliflower is also a very nutritious vegetable.
- It is delicious to eat and is used in almost every popular dish.
- It also has a very high nutritive value.
- If you plant to attempt growing cauliflower in the home garden, it requires consistently cool temperatures with temperatures in the 60s.
- Otherwise, it may prematurely “button”—form small, button-size heads—rather than forming a single, large, white head.
- In India call the Gobi.
Grown Areas of Cauliflower Farming In India
- In India, major Cauliflower growing depends on the varieties and soils.
- Mostly all the states are grown.
Nutritive and Medical Value of Cauliflower
- Cauliflowers are rich in various minerals which improve the bone density.
- So, if you are a patient of osteoporosis, you need to include cauliflowers in your daily diet
- It can be used to treat cancer. If you eat cauliflowers daily, you have a lower risk of diagnosing with cancer.
- Cauliflower leaves can be used in salads and they are highly nutritious.
- You can also use them as a flavoring agent in soups and stews.
- Eating cauliflowers daily can prove beneficial for your heart.
- They lower your blood pressure and keep your heart healthy.
- It is rich in vitamin-C.
- This essential vitamin fights with diseases and keeps your immune system healthy.
- Calcium is an important mineral in cauliflowers.
- In fact, you can get your daily calcium intake from one cup of cauliflowers.
- It has magnesium and potassium.
- Both the minerals help your body to absorb calcium and keep your bones and teeth healthy.
- Pregnant women are advised to include calcium in their daily diet.
- It contains folate which is essential for the proper growth and development of the fetus.
- Eating cauliflowers can reduce hair fall.
- Cauliflowers contain nutrients that prevent hair-fall and promote healthy growth of hair.
- It contains essential anti-oxidants.
- The anti-oxidants prevent premature graying of your skin and help your skin to stay healthy.
- You are looking for weight loss options; you can include cauliflowers in your daily diet.
- Cauliflowers burn fat from your body helping to reduce your weight.
- Cauliflowers are rich in fibers.
- Fibers prevent and treat constipation and promote bowel movement.
- They also treat various other stomach disorders.
- Cauliflowers are low in carbohydrates and calories.
- If you are diabetic patient, you can try out different recipes of cauliflower.
How Can Cauliflower Farming?
- Hot weather, too low of temperatures, or drought will result in premature heads.
- When growing cauliflower, remember that the plant is sensitive to conditions unfavorable for its growth.
- When growing cauliflower, you should have a hotbed or greenhouse to help you produce transplants in the early spring.
- Cauliflower grows best in soil that is fertile and soft so it can hold enough moisture.
- When thinking about how to grow cauliflower, you should remember that it requires rich soil and lots of nutrients.
- When thinking about how to plant cauliflower, you should plant the seeds ½ to ¾ inches deep.
- The rows should be three to six inches apart, with a maximum of eight seeds per 1 foot of row.
- If the plant bed starts to overcrowd, thin the plants to 1 inch apart in the row.
- When your plants are ready to be moved outside, plant cauliflower on 8- to 10-inch rows at least 36 inches apart.
- Make sure the rows are at least 15 inches apart. When you first water, use a high phosphate fertilizer so the plants can get a good contact with the soil.
- Fertilize frequently; cauliflower likes a good magnesium level as well and will show symptoms of deficiency when the soil is allowed to become too acidic.
- Water your cauliflower every five to seven days.
- This is required for your cauliflower to produce nice heads.
- Cauliflower is sensitive to both over and under watering as well, so be sure to irrigate the plants so they don’t get stressed.
Varieties of Cauliflower in India
- The crops varieties Snowball, Cheddar, Purple of Sicily and Romanesco, etc are common cultivate Cauliflower Varieties in Farming.
Growing Requirement in Cauliflower Farming
- Cauliflower is basically a cold season vegetable.
- These days you can find cauliflower growing in many seasonal shifts.
- Cauliflowers can also be cultivated in hot weather.
- The ideal temperature to grow cauliflowers would be 10-25 degree Celsius.
- If the temperature is too extreme, yield will be affected.
- You need to make sure that they are not grown in a dry climate.
- Cauliflower is a cool-season crop with distinct temperature requirements for producing a marketable curd.
- The optimal temperature range for growth and development is 18 to 20 °C during the day.
- Most growing regions in India have daytime temperatures of 17 to 29 °C and night-time temperatures of 3 to 12 °C.
- At temperatures of 27 °C and higher, cauliflower tends to have small jacket leaves, small curds, solar yellowing and raciness of the curd.
- At freezing temperatures, the curds may be damaged and when that happens, is that secondary decay occurs.
Suitable soil/Land Preparation for Cauliflower Farming
- Usually, seeds are sown in a phased manner to get a continuous supply of roots.
- Cauliflower is grown on many soil types, from clay to loamy sand.
- Soils with a high moisture-holding capacity are preferred in the summer because water stress adversely affects curd development.
- In winter, soils that dry rapidly after a rain are preferred so that farm equipment can enter to perform cultivating and harvesting operations.
- Cauliflower is considered moderately sensitive to salinity in soil and water.
- Although no salinity threshold for yield reduction has been established for cauliflower.
- It is considered more tolerant to salinity than lettuce but somewhat less tolerant to salinity than broccoli.
- To cultivate cauliflower, you need well-prepared soil.
- You need to give 2-3 ploughings with a plow.
- Later you need to remove stones and grit to obtain a fine and smooth texture of the soil.
- At the time of the last plow, you need to mix farmyard manure to the soil.
Best Planting season for Cauliflower Farming
- Accurate spacing is obtained from sized seeds and precision seeders.
- No cauliflower is direct seeded on most growing areas, but in fewer parts, it is direct seeded.
- The majority of growers use greenhouse-grown transplants.
- With transplants, more uniform plant stands and earlier harvests are possible.
- Transplanted cauliflower is placed in single rows on beds of 3 100 cm wide and spaced 30 cm apart.
- Plants are typically placed with the crown below the soil surface to reduce damage caused by winds.
- In some cultivars, as plants begin to form flower buds, the leaves surrounding the central growing point must be hand-tied with rubber bands to prevent the developing curd from being exposed to sunlight, which can cause yellowing.
- Other cultivars form a leaf jacket that shades the flower, eliminating the need for tying.
- Still, other cultivars do not develop an appreciable degree of solar yellowing even with direct exposure to the sun.
Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements for Cauliflower Farming
- Cauliflower demands a lot of nutrients and care must be taken to provide adequate nutrition to the crop.
- Phosphorus fertilization should be applied based on the soil-test level of bicarbonate-extractable phosphorus.
- Levels above 50 ppm are adequate for cauliflower growth; for soils below this level.
- Especially in winter, preplans applications of 45 to 90 kg/ha of phosphorus pentoxide are recommended.
- The need for potassium (K) can also be determined from soil tests.
- Soils with greater than 150 ppm of ammonium acetate exchangeable potassium have sufficient quantities of potassium for the crop.
- Potassium fertilization presents no environmental risk and many growers routinely apply potassium, even in fields with high exchangeable soil
- While applying approximately 112 to 157 kg/ ha of potassium to replace potassium removed by the harvested crop is appropriate to maintain soil fertility, fertilization rates above that level are economically wasteful.
- Zinc fertilization is recommended if DTPA-extractable soil level is less than 1,5 ppm.
- Zinc fertilization is frequently applied owing to high soil phosphorus levels, which reduce zinc uptake by plants.
- The test can be repeated later in the season to ensure continuing nitrogen sufficiency.
- In drip-irrigated fields, nitrogen can be applied through the drip system as well.
- Typically, drip systems deliver 4 nitrogen fertilizers more efficiently than do furrow or sprinkler irrigations.
- Often allowing drip users to reduce fertilizer application by 20 to 30%.
Water supply/Irrigation in Cauliflower Farming
- Cauliflower requires adequate soil moisture to maximize yield and quality.
- It is irrigated most frequently with furrow and overhead sprinklers.
- Most growers use sprinkler irrigation to establish transplants and either continue with sprinklers or switch to furrow or drip irrigation for the remainder of the crop.
- After transplants are established, sprinkler irrigations are usually applied at weekly intervals during the spring and summer.
- A small part of the hectare can be grown under surface drip irrigation.
- Some drip irrigated fields are planted on beds of 2 m wide with three lines of plants per bed and two lines of drip tape between the plant rows.
- Using drip irrigation can provide improved access to fields during harvest.
- The volume and frequency of sprinkler or furrow irrigation depend on soil type, weather conditions, crop-production area, and crop maturity.
- The combination of soil-moisture monitoring and weather-based irrigation scheduling can be used to determine the water needs of cauliflower.
- Water use is highest during the last month of the crop when vegetal growth is high.
- Soil moisture tensions are typically targeted for less than 25 to 30 kpa during this period.
- Leaf Spot
- Squash bug
Inter-cropping in Cauliflower Farming
- Two or three hoeing may be done during the early stage of growth to keep down the weeds and to conserve soil moisture.
- Two or three plants are kept at one place in the hills or beds by thinning the extra plant.
Storage/Harvest in Cauliflower Farming
- Cauliflower is hand-harvested in the field.
- Fields are normally harvested two to four times or more, depending on the market.
- Mature heads of 15 cm or larger are hand-selected and trimmed of excess wrapper leaves, making a crown-cut shape.
- Smaller heads will usually grow enough to be harvested as the next larger size within a couple of days.
- The heads are placed on a harvesting platform, sorted, covered with plastic wrap and packed by size.
- Cauliflower should never be allowed to roll or have the 8 white curds make contact with objects or work surfaces because of the curd readily bruises and turns brown.
- Damaged curds may even be subject to post-harvest decay.
- Heads are usually placed in plastic bags, sealed with tape and packed in cartons according to size like cartons of 9, 12, 16 or 20 heads.
- Normally, the markets prefer 12s.
- Cauliflower is always packed in single layer cartons to prevent bruising and subsequent discoloration and decay.
- Some cauliflower is cut into florets for fresh-cut products, usually for food-service outlets.
- Cartons containing 1, 4 kg bags of 3, 7 to 7, 5 cm florets are common.
- In addition to conventional cartons, cauliflower is marketed as small and large-cut pieces and mixed with other vegetables such as broccoli and carrots.
- Yields of 10.4 kg cartons (200 to 240 per ha) are possible.
- Some cauliflower is hand-harvested, placed in bulk bins and transported to a freezer plant.
- These heads are harvested with more jacket leaves than carton-packed cauliflower to prevent curd damage during transport and unloading.
- The heads are trimmed again at the freezer plant.
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