Contents in this Post
- Carrot Farming
- Introduction of Carrot Farming
- How Can Carrot Farming?
- Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Carrot Farming
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Introduction of Carrot Farming
Carrot annual and biannual herb belongs to the family of Umbelliferae and it is native of Europe. Carrot Farming is a major Vegetable crop of India. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh are major Carrot growing states.
Carrots are among the most universally grown, if not the best-loved of vegetables. Because of their broad appeal radiant colors, diverse shapes and sizes, culinary versatility, and nutritional value demand for carrots will always be strong.
Horticultural, though, they can be particular, and even seasoned growers find them exacting in their requirements. Because demand is reliably strong, however, mastering carrot culture can be well worth a grower’s while
Use of Carrots
Raw in salads, cooked and eaten on their own, or added to soups, stews and other dishes. Large quantities are processed, either separately or with other vegetables, in canning, freezing or dehydration. However, the main requirement on the fresh produce markets is for larger roots.
The following varieties, usually with a cylindrical to longish, tapered root, are the most common: Cape Market, Chantenay Karoo, Chantenay Royal, Flora, Ithaca, Kuroda, Senior, Star 3006 and Sugar Snax.
Grown Areas of Carrot Farming In India
In India, Carrot Farming can in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh are major Carrot Farming states.
Nutritive and Medical Value of Carrot
- The water content can vary from around 86-95%, and the edible portion consists of around 10% carbohydrates.
- It is a great source of Vitamin A.
- Carrots contain very little fat and protein.
- One medium, raw carrot (61 grams) contains 25 calories, with only 4 grams of digestible carbs.
- Rich in vitamins C, B1 and B2 and particularly rich in carotene (pro-vitamin A).
- The crabs consist of starch and sugars, such as sucrose and glucose.
- They are also a relatively good source of fiber, with one medium-sized carrot (61 grams) providing 2 grams.
- Carrots often rank low on the glycolic index, which is a measure of how quickly foods raise blood sugar after a meal.
- The glycolic index of carrots ranges from 16-60, being lowest for raw carrots, a little higher for cooked carrots and highest for pureed carrots.
- Eating low-glycolic foods is linked to numerous health benefits, and is considered particularly beneficial for diabetics.
- Carrots are rich in beta-carotene, which is converted to vitamin A in the body.
- Vitamin A promotes good vision and is important for growth, development, and immune function.
- One of the B-vitamins, formerly known as vitamin H.
- It plays an important role in fat and protein metabolism
- Diets rich in carotenes may have a protective effect against several types of cancer.
- Carrots, as parts of meals, can increase satiety and decrease calorie intake in subsequent meals Individuals that are low in vitamin A are more likely to experience night blindness, a condition that may improve by eating carrots or other foods rich in vitamin A or arytenoids.
Varieties of Carrot in India
- Nantes varieties are 6 to 7 inches long, cylindrical (not tapered), and entirely edible. They are medium-sized, sweet and mild, and have a crisp texture.
- Danvers carrots are a classic heirloom carrot 6–8” long that tapers at the end, with a rich, dark orange color. This variety can handle heavy soil better than most varieties.
- Little Finger is a small Nantes type of carrot only 4 inches long and one inch thick. Great for containers.
- Thumbelina round carrot, good for clumpy or clay soil.
How Can Carrot Farming?
- One of the major problems confronting Carrot Farming is achieving the correct plant population.
- If the population is too low, roots tend to become large and are likely to split and crack.
- Where the population is too high, roots tend to become smaller and are often twisted around one another.
- Dense plantings can be thinned out, but this is not practical where large-scale plantings are made.
- Serious producers try to get their plant population right the first time.
- Various factors must be taken into account in determining the optimum seeding rate.
- One is the size of the end product you want.
- For example, you may use a variety such as Red Core Chantenay to produce large, blocky roots up to 60mm in diameter and 160mm in length.
- If the product is to be delivered to a factory for dicing.
- In this case, you’ll only have 100 to 150 plants/you can plant the same variety to produce whole baby carrots up to 27mm in diameter and less than 80mm long.
- Whereas small seed may have a count of over 1, 5 in Carrot Farming.
- In Carrot Farming another problem is the big differences in seed sizes found among different varieties or batches of seed.
- With large seed, you may only have 400 000 seeds/ million seeds/kg.
- The difference in germination capacity and vigor of any seed lot must also be taken into account when deciding on a seeding rate.
- in Carrot Farming Germination may vary from 80% to 100%.
- Finally, there’s likely to be a population variation in the land, influenced by the prevailing climate, soil and other conditions.
- Loosen the soil thoroughly by plowing or using a fork, hand hoe or spade to a depth of 300 – 400mm to allow for good root aeration, root penetration, and drainage.
- Crush all clods with a rake or cultivator to obtain a deep, fine tilt.
- Remove stones because they can cause poorly shaped carrots.
- It would be even better to build and prepare a raised bed.
- Remove all weeds before sowing because carrot seedlings are very fine and cannot compete with weeds.
- Put the seeds in the palm of one hand, take a substantial pinch with the fingers of the other hand and rub between finger and thumb as you move your hand forward and backward along shallow furrows until the desired sowing rate is achieved.
- Another method is to mix one teaspoon of seed with 10 teaspoons of sand and then sow it.
- in Carrot Farming Seeding requires some experience and practice.
- After sowing, cover the seed with fine soil to ensure better germination.
- In the warmer months, mulch the rows with dry grass to keep the soil cool and moist, as this will assist germination.
- Remove the mulch after the seedlings have emerged.
- Emergence may take 7 to 14 days depending on the cultivar, the weather, soil type and season important.
- You will need 3 kg to 4 kg seed. For smaller plots, allow 1 g per 2 m of row.
- Allow 25 – 35cm between rows.
- Thin out at one to two weeks after emergence, when the carrot seedlings are about 4cm high, and again one to two weeks later.
- This should result in a spacing of 4 – 5cm within the row.
- Do not thin out later than four weeks after emergence.
- If the crop is not thinned out, the carrots will be small and malformed.
- Thinning should take place in the afternoon, and when soil is moist.
Growing Requirement in Carrot Farming
- Carrots need deep, well-drained sandy loam to sandy soil, and the texture is very important because it affects how smooth and well-shaped the roots will be.
- Avoid heavy, compact soil which will discourage growth.
- Soils high in the fresh organic matter can result in hairy, forked and malformed roots, and stony soil can also produce poor root shapes.
- The optimum pH (H₂O) is between 6.0 and 6.5.
- Carrots are cool-weather plants, but growth slows down if the temperature drops below 10ºC.
- Although not usually sensitive to frost, severe frosty spells can damage the leaves.
- Roots can be damaged if the soil temperature drops below 0°C, especially if the plants were irrigated the preceding afternoon.
- The temperature and soil moisture influence the color, shape, and quality of carrots.
- Growth is optimal at 18°C to 23°C, although some cultivars can withstand a great deal of heat.
- High temperatures (above 29°C) affect emergence and quality negatively, causing poor color and thicker centers.
- Kuroda, which offers an excellent yield and has a good shape.
- It’s 11 – 15cm long and has a thin kernel. Can be produced in warmer seasons.
- Cape Market is cylindrical, 12 – 17cm long and produced in warmer seasons.
- Scarlet Nantes, Flacco, Fancy and Duke are good choices for autumn planting.
- Insufficient soil moisture results in a longer, thinner root, while very wet conditions have the opposite effect and give rise to a lighter color.
- In hot, frost-free areas, avoid planting in the very hot months like October to January.
- Forked and cracked roots are more common in summer and the central core tends to be thicker.
- In cooler areas, the best time to plant carrots is from February to April and from August to October.
- In mild areas, they can be planted throughout the year.
- The aim is to grow straight, smooth roots.
- The best soil for carrots is deep sandy loam or loamy soils with a loose structure.
- Sand is easier to clean off at harvest.
- Heavy, stony, compacted or poorly-drained soils cause deformed roots.
- Avoid very light soils which can be blown away, as young plants are easily damaged by wind-blown sand.
Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Carrot Farming
- Broadcast about 1 000 kg/ha (100 g/m2) of a fertilizer mixture such as 2:3:4 (30)+Zn or 1 100 kg/ha (110 g/m2) of 2:3:2 (22)+Zn just before planting and work it into the top 10 cm of soil.
- Apply a top dressing of 10g LAN per meter of the row at three weeks and again at six weeks after emergence.
- Sprinkle on both sides of the row, 2cm to 10 cm from the plants.
- Do not sprinkle on the plants.
- It would be a good idea to remove all the weeds before applying LAN in order to avoid their competing with the carrots for fertilizer.
- Work into the top 2 cm of the soil, using a flat-tined fork.
- In areas known to have a boron deficiency, apply 10 kg/ha to 20 kg/ha borax after planting.
- Do not use manure and compost for carrots, because they can cause malformation of the roots and decrease the marketable yield.
- If manure needs to be dug in, do so with the crop preceding carrots.
Water supply/Irrigation in Carrot Farming
- Start off with a weed-free plot so that the carrots do not have to compete with them for nutrients and water.
- Then weed carrots regularly to keep them free of weeds.
- If you see any weeds appear, remove them immediately.
- Being weed-free has a substantial effect on the yield – and your profits.
- Be particularly careful to remove perennial weeds because they can grow between the roots and will result in poor-quality carrots.
- Keep the soil moist after sowing the seeds to ensure good germination.
- Water carrots regularly throughout the growing season, but take care not to water too much.
- As a general rule, carrots need about 30 mm of water per week.
- Water every five days if the weather is warm and dry.
Pests in Carrot Farming
Silver Leaf: Leaves develop a silvery sheen, cut branches revel red staining. Prune from the end of June until the end of August or in rarely spring. Keep pruning cuts to a minimum, pruning regularly so cut surfaces are small.
Bacterial Canker: This disease occurs of sunken, dead areas of bark often accompanied by the gummy ooze. It can kill off entire branches. Also burn or landfill the pruning.
Glasshouse red spider: Leaves become mottle, pale and cover in webbing on which the mitts can be clearly seen, leaves also drop prematurely. Use biological control in the greenhouse.
Birds: Birds in Pigeons mostly affects the apricot fruits. It can cause an array of problems including eating seedlings, buds, leaves, fruits and vegetables. Avoid this problem by protecting the plants from birds by covering netting.
Drills: These are a worm’s type. It is attacked by drill device galleries that trace the host trees.
Big-headed Worm: It is a pest that affects many fruit trees. The main damages are caused by the larvae that build galleries in weakling the plant roots which eventually die. to avoid this pest use as biological traps feronomas.
Diseases in Carrot Farming
- A disease caused primarily by fungi of the genus Puccini and Melampsora, which use the excess humidity to thrive. It means as spots of orange or brown on the leaves. Then a yellow color in the part of the beam.
Moniliosis or Flower Blight
- This is affect flowers that dry. Also, produce a blacking of the fruits that are dry on the branches without falling. Apricot tree is infecting by the appearance of cankers on the branches and the sticky liquid oozing out of some parts of the plants.
- This Disease is caused by fungus or Podosphaea Sphaerotheca rate. The first attacks the fruit in summer and leaves in spring. It is produced by a white spider web on fruits, leaves, and stems. Over time these stains by infection with order plants that keep fungus in the winter and spread their spoors in spring. Watering the tree itself will help prevent the disease because the water may be able to clean the spores. In some location using a biological fungicide call AQ10. It is the parasitic fungus Ampelomyces quisqualis that feeds at the expense of podosphere. Do not use sulfur on Apricot tress.
- It is a gummy substance oozing from the bark. Also causes from diseases to excessive pruning, failure of any component in the substrate, adverse weather conditions, injuries etc.
- In many cases, the gumming is an adaptation of the plant itself that covers wounds to prevent invasion of external agents. To avoid such an event should be sought and address the cause that produces it.
- The most common disease also attacks the vine are often sudden fractures of branches in old trees and the sudden wilting leaves.
- It is a cause that produces gummier in the wounds heal pruning. Around the same is, in general, a lot of resin oozing chancre. Then this disease center of the plant and ends up killing her.
- Try to do the pruning day days to prevent the growth of these fungi and seek to reduce pruning old tress.
- The solution is to use a fungicide paint that covers the injuries on the tree after pruning.
- It is affected by the almond and peach trees but sometimes affects in the plum and apricots Tress. It is produced by Fusicoccum amygdale that causes brown and elongate cankers’ at the base of the knots and yolks branches of the year, lead to the strangling of them and then death by the action of the toxins of the fungus. Also attacks the leaves large brown spots.
- Infection occurs through spores spread by rain penetrating wounds more or less large each of the parts of the plant or directly the young trees.
- The solution of this disease removes the affected part of the plant and the use of Fungicides.
Inter-cropping is Carrot Farming
- Inter-cropping is a way of extra income.
- Also, the main advantage is intercropping is to enrich the soil.
- Rotating crops helps to improve the quality of the soil and keep down soil-borne pests.
- Carrots make good crop rotation partners for cabbage, lettuce, pumpkin, and tomatoes.
- If rotated with leguminous crops, such as peas and beans, they improve the soil’s nutrient levels.
Storage/Harvest in Carrot Farming
- Carrot Farming for 10 to 12 weeks from emergence to harvesting, depending on the cultivar and the temperature.
- In small gardens, harvest them as soon as they reach a diameter of 20 mm but are still young and tender.
- Make sure the soil is wet when you harvest carrots, to make them easier to remove, either pulling out by hand or first loosening them carefully with a fork from the base of the plants and then pulling them out.
- Harvest carrots when they are fully mature as this increases their shelf-life.
- Do not harvest early in the morning if the soil is cold, as this may cause the roots to crack horizontally.
- Do not leave carrots in the sun after harvesting – take them to a shady place as soon as possible.
- Most horticultural crops are perishable and can only be stored for a few days
- It is best to harvest carrots as needed for consumption or selling.
- Remove the leaves before storing, to extend shelf life.
- Fresh carrots, harvested when mature, will keep for up to five days at room temperature (20°C) and for 7 to 21 days in a refrigerator.
- To store freshly-harvested carrots, twist off the tops, scrub off the dirt under cold running water, let dry and seal in airtight plastic bags, and refrigerate.
- If you simply put fresh carrots in the refrigerator, they’ll go limp in a few hours.
- You may leave mature carrots in the soil for temporary storage if the ground will not freeze and pests aren’t a problem.
- Carrots can be stored in tubs of moist sand for winter use.
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