Cabbage Farming Information

By | October 2, 2018

Cabbage Farming

This information regarding Cabbage Farming. If you are interested in Cabbage Farming please read this full article.

Introduction of Cabbage Farming

  • Cabbage Farming has a good demand in the market around all the season of a year. So the best option is a growth of this farming.
  • Cabbage is believed to have evolved from a wild form native to Europe, growing along the coast of the North Sea, the English Channel and the northern Mediterranean.
  • Its operates described cabbage in 350 BC and the Greeks cultivated it as early as 600 BC and they believed that cabbage was a gift from the gods.
  • Pliny reported a soft-headed form in ancient Rome and the Saxons and Romans probably cultivated it and introduced it to the British Isles.
  • The hardheaded types were only mentioned in the 9th century.
  • The early Egyptians are said to have worshipped it.
  • The plant was used for medicinal purposes to treat gout, stomach problems, deafness, headache and hangovers in the early days.
  • Cabbage is now grown throughout the world.

Grown Areas of Cabbage Farming In India

  • India is the largest producer of Cabbage farming in Asia as well as in the world.
  • It is also used as a vegetable in Brazil, West Africa and many other countries in Asia.
  • In India, major Ladies Finger growing states are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, and West Bengal.

Nutritive and Medical Value of Cabbage

  • Ladies Finger can help you to get thick and nourished hair.
  • Chronic inflammation that occurs over a long period of time is associated with many diseases, including heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Cruciferous vegetables like cabbage contain many different antioxidants that have been shown to reduce chronic inflammation.
  • In fact, research has shown that eating more cruciferous vegetables reduces certain blood markers of inflammation.
  • Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that serves many important roles in the body.
  • For instance, it’s needed to make collagen, the most abundant protein in the body.
  • Collagen gives structure and flexibility to the skin and is critical for the proper functioning of the bones, muscles and blood vessels.
  • His crunchy vegetable is full of gut-friendly insoluble fiber, a type of carbohydrate that can’t be broken down in the intestines.
  • Insoluble fiber helps keep the digestive system healthy by adding bulk to stools and promoting regular bowel movements.

How Can Cabbage Farming?

  • Cabbage may be planted by direct-seeding or transplanting of seedlings.
  • If direct seeding is to be used, about 2 kg of seed per hectare may be required.
  • Seedlings should be transplanted as soon as they reach the desired size and only well-hardened, young, stocky plants should be used.
  • Transplanting is done on moist soil.
  • The soil around the roots should be firmed and irrigated as soon as possible after the seedlings rare set.
  • In wet areas, cabbage should be planted on raised beds or ridges to reduce water-logging and stem or root rot diseases.
  • Plant population and spacing influence head size, head shape and yield.
  • Cabbage plant populations vary according to the target market for a particular crop.
  • It has been reported that cabbage forms smaller and slightly more pointed heads when they are spaced closely.
  • Plant populations of 40 000 to 45 000 per hectare are suggested for large-headed types while for cultivars with medium-sized heads.
  • Populations of 55 000 to 65 000 plants per hectare are said to be ideal. For baby cabbage, populations of 80 000 to 100 000 plants per hectare are recommended.
  • It is recommended that large-headed cultivars should be planted 600 to 700 mm apart between rows and 450 mm apart within rows.
  • Smaller-headed varieties are planted 600 X 300 mm apart.

Varieties of in Cabbage India

  • The crops varieties are Golden Acre, Pusa Mukta, Pusa Drumhead, K-1, Pride of India, Ganga etc are common cultivate Cabbage Varieties in Farming.

Growing Requirement in Cabbage Farming

  • Cabbage and leafy greens are adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions and are grown throughout India.
  • Although the southwestern portion of the state produces the most, several areas contribute significantly, including the southeast and the northeast.
  • Cabbage, collard, and kale can tolerate hard frosts, but severe freezes can be damaging.
  • Turnip and mustard can tolerate fairly cold temperatures, but hard frosts can kill the crops or make them unmarketable.
  • All can be grown on a wide range of soil types and are somewhat drought tolerant, although production without irrigation is not recommended.
  • Most production of cabbage and leafy greens occurs in the spring, fall and winter months.
  • Except in the northern reaches of the state where production occurs in spring and summer.

Suitable soil/Land Preparation in Cabbage Farming

  • The land should be clean cultivated eight weeks before planting and the ground must be plowed deeply, immediately.
  • Before planting, with a disk harrow or other suitable implement to a depth of 450 to 600 mm.
  • The soil should be fumigated two weeks before planting time if necessary, to control nematodes.
  • Plants depend on the soil for physical support, nutrients, and water.
  • The degree to which the soil adequately provides these factors depends upon topography, soil type, and soil structure and soil fertility.
  • Under cultivated conditions, soil and fertilizer management are two key factors influencing plant growth and yield.
  • Tillage is a general term for any operation that disrupts and/or moves the soil, typically within 10 to 12 inches of the soil surface.
  • Land preparation involves one or more tillage operations that loosen, pulverizes, smooth or firms the soil and makes it more conducive to plant establishment and root growth.
  • Cabbage and leafy greens may be planted or transplanted on flat or raised beds.
  • A raised bed will warm up more quickly and enhance earlier growth.
  • Cabbage and leafy greens do poorly in excessively wet soils.
  • Raised beds facilitate drainage and help prevent “wet feet” in low or poorly drained soils.
  • Keep in mind, however, that cabbage or leafy greens planted on raised beds may require more irrigation during drought conditions.
  • The optimum pH range for cabbage and leafy greens production is 6.0 to 6.5.
  • Alternatively, you use the fertilizers if you can use these organic manures in a better way.

Best Planting season for Cabbage Farming

  • Mainly the optimum time of seed sowing varies greatly depending upon climate, varieties and their temperature requirement for growth.

Spacing Between Plants in Cabbage Farming

  • The optimal plant population per acre depends upon the plant’s growth habit like compact, medium or spreading, sizes like small, medium or large at maturity, the vigor of specific cultivars, climate, soil moisture and nutrient availability, soil productivity, and intended use.
  • Table 2 gives planting dates and recommended seeding and planting information for collard, cabbage, kale, turnip, and mustard.
  • Plant spacing for cabbage and kale is usually about 36 inches between rows and 9 to 12 inches in the row.
  • Turnip may be spaced closely four to six seeds per foot.
  • If no roots are to be harvested or spread to wider in-row spacing three to four seeds per foot.
  • If grown for roots and tops. One popular arrangement is to grow four rows, each 14 inches apart, on a 6-foot bed.
  • Mustard arrangements are similar to turnip grown for greens only.
  • Collard spacing will depend on the harvest method.
  • If young collards are to be harvested similarly to turnip, they may be grown in rows 12 to 18 inches apart with plants 2 to 4 inches apart in the row.

Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Cabbage Farming

  • Cabbage is a heavy feeder and requires supplemental fertilization in the form of manure or compost, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
  • Fertilizer programmers should be based on soil analyses and should be developed for each field.
  • Cabbage requires 200 to 250 kg nitrogen per hectare.
  • Nitrogen is supplied in split applications, where 50 % to 66 % is broadcast and plowed in just before planting.
  • The first application is made together with phosphorus and potassium.
  • The remainder is side-dressed two to three weeks after transplanting and again three weeks later or applied once-off at about six weeks.
  • If a fertilizer mixture is preferred, 1 500 kg of 2:3:2 (22) and 100 kg potassium per hectare may be broadcasted before planting.
  • A top dressing of 300 kg LAN should be applied approximately four weeks after transplanting and again 4 weeks later if required.
  • Cabbage also needs micronutrients for proper growth and development.
  • The crop has a high requirement of calcium and deficiencies of this nutrient may occur on acid soils, on soils with very high potassium or on very dry soils.
  • Foliar sprays of calcium nitrate can be used to supply calcium.
  • Magnesium may also be deficient on acid soils, on very light soils or on soils that are very high in potassium.
  • Spraying the plants with 5 kg magnesium per hectare can rectify the problem.
  • Cabbage is very susceptible to molybdenum deficiency.
  • Plants should be sprayed with 125 g of sodium- or ammonium molybdate in 500l of water per hectare as soon as signs of deficiency are noticed.
  • A foliar spray of 5 kg per hectare of manganese sulfate or 2 to 3 kg/ha of manganese oxide is suggested as soon as symptoms of deficiency are observed.
  • Cabbage may have boron deficiencies in areas with high rainfall.
  • Three kilograms of Solberg are effective in controlling boron deficiency

Water supply/Irrigation in Cabbage Farming

  • Even though cabbage and leafy greens are primarily cool-season crops, irrigation will significantly increase their yield and quality in most years.
  • Thee crops are shallow rooted, and even though their water requirements are less than those for most crops, they can use up the Available moisture in the shallow root zone very quickly.
  • The most serious yield reductions result when moisture deficits occur during late development and, in the case of cabbage, during head formation.
  • Sprinkler irrigation is the only method that has proven practical for irrigation of these crops.
  • Common types of systems include center pivot, linear move, traveling big-gun, and permanent set and portable aluminum pipe with sprinklers.
  • Any sprinkler system used on cabbage or greens should be capable of delivering at least 1¼ inches of water each week.
  • In addition, the system should apply the water slowly enough to prevent run-off.
  • With most soils, a rate less than 2 inches per hour safely prevents runoff.
  • Drip irrigation is often used when cabbage, collard or kale are double cropped with another vegetable on mulched beds.
  • Irrigation can best be managed by monitoring the amount of moisture in the soil.
  • Densitometers or resistance blocks can be used to measure soil moisture.
  • For best results on cabbage and greens, maintain soil tension below 30 cantinas.
  • For cabbage, maintaining uniform moisture during head formation is especially important to prevent bursting.
  • Maintain soil moisture until harvest.

Disease in Cabbage Farming

  • Aphids
  • Leaf Spot
  • Stem
  • Thrips
  • Squash bug

Inter-cropping in Cabbage Farming

  • Two or three hoeing may be done during the early stage of growth to keep down the weeds and to conserve soil moisture.
  • Two or three plants are kept at one place in the hills or beds by thinning the extra plant.

Storage/Harvest in Cabbage Farming

  • Any leafy greens including cabbage, collard, kale, mustard, and turnip are cut by hand and packed directly in the field for the fresh market.
  • Necessary trimming to remove any yellowed, brownish or damaged leaves should be done as the plants are picked and before they are tied into bunches and placed into containers.
  • In addition, cabbage may be cut by hand, loaded into a bulk container such as a field wagon and hauled to a packing shed for trimming, grading, and packaging.
  • During cabbage harvest, cut stems so that they do not extend more than ½ inch beyond the point of attachment of the outmost leaves.
  • Heads may be damaged by excessively long, protruding stems. Bunch collards according to a uniform size.
  • Coarse, tough stems of plants should not be packed.
  • Harvest leaves of turnip, mustard, and kale when tender by feel, and avoids those showing tough stems.
  • Ensuring a quality pack can be a problem for hand harvesters.
  • Field labor must be adequately trained and supervised to harvest only optimum maturity and/or sized leaves or rooted plants to meet potential buyer’s quality standards.
  • Field sanitation is very important to reduce the spread of disease among plants. Cutting tools are a primary source of disease carryover.
  • Worker’s knives should be collected at the end of a harvest day and placed in a bucket of sanitizer.
  • For better protection, place buckets of sanitizer at the end of selected rows in the field.
  • Cabbage is sometimes considered a “hardware” item because it is thrown into bulk containers in the field or at the packing shed.
  • Outer leaves are broken and heads burst when subjected to impact damage.
  • Leaves of leafy greens are crushed if they are over packed into field boxes.
  • If not used properly, cutting tools will puncture leaves.
  • Any cuts or breaks in the leaves or heads will cause excessive wilting and provide avenues for decay pathogens.
  • Maximum storage time for cabbage is three to six weeks if it has been properly precooked and held at 32°F.
  • A relative humidity of 90 percent to 95 percent should be maintained during storage.
  • Cabbage is compatible for holding and shipment with fruits and vegetables that do not produce the ripening gas ethylene.
  • Quality is damaged by exposure to trace amounts of ethylene.
  • Yellowing and shedding of outer leaves results.
  • Do not store or ship cabbage with ripening tomatoes, cantaloupes or ethylene-producing fruits such as peaches.

 

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