Contents in this Post
- Brinjal Farming
- Introduction of Brinjal Farming
- How Can Brinjal Farming?
- Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Brinjal Farming
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Introduction of Brinjal Farming
- Brinjal or Eggplant is an important crop of subtropics and tropics. The name brinjal is popular in Indian subcontinents and is derived from Arabic and Sanskrit whereas the name eggplant has been deriving from the shape of the fruit of some varieties.
- Brinjal belongs to family Solanaceae, consider native to India and is a widely grown vegetable in Asian counties.
- Like white and resemble in shape to chicken eggs. It is also called aubergine in Europe.
- The brinjal is of much importance in the warm areas of Far East, being grown extensively in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, China, and the Philippines.
- It is also popular in Egypt, France, Italy, and the United States.
- In India, it is one of the most common, popular and principal vegetable crops grown throughout the country except higher altitudes.
- It is versatile crop adapt to different agro-climate regions and can be grown throughout the year.
- It is a perennial but grown commercially as an annual crop.
- A number of cultivars are grown in India, consumer preference being dependent upon fruit color, size, and shape.
Grown Areas of Brinjal Farming In India
- In India major, Brinjal Farming states are West Bengal, Orissa, Karnataka, Bihar, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh.
Nutritive and Medical Value of Brinjal
- 1 Cup of eggplant consists of 11% of fiber, 10% of manganese, 5.4% of molybdenum, 5.3% of potassium, 4.5% of float, 3.5% of Vitamin K, and 3.5% of copper, 64% of vitamin B, 3.1% of tryptophan, 3% of vitamin C and 3% of magnesium.
- It is good for skin related problems like anti-aging, Actinic Kurtosis.
- Also good for hair. Your hair is stronger, Avoid hair growth, Improves Hair Texture.
- Helps Control diabetes.
- Boosts Memory.
- Aids Digestion.
- Helps quit smoking.
- Prevents Cancer.
- Helps prevent Cognitive Disorders.
- Treats Acid Reflux.
- Enhances Liver Health.
- Is Good for Babies.
How Can Brinjal Farming?
- Brinjal seeds are shown on nursery beds to raise seedlings for transplanting in the field.
- Raise beds are necessary to avoid the problem of water logging in the heavy soils.
- In sandy soils, however, sowing can be taken up in the flatbeds.
- Raise beds of size 7.2 *1.2 m and 10-15 cm in height are prepared.
- Thus, ten such beds are sufficient to raise seedling for planting one-hectare area.
- About 70 cm distances are kept between two beds to carry out operations of watering, weeding, etc.
- The surface of beds should be smooth and well level.
- Well-decomposed farmyard manure of leaf mold may be mix with the soil at the time of bed preparation.
- To avoid mortality of seedlings due to damping off, drenching of the beds with Bavistin is effective.
- About 250-300 g of seed is sufficient for raising seedlings for one hectare of land.
- Prior to sowing seeds are treated with a fungal culture of Trichoderma viride or Thiram to avoid damage from the damping-off disease.
- Sowing should be done thinly in lines spaced at 5-7 cm distance.
- Seeds are sown at a depth of 2-3 cm and cover with a fine layer of soil follow by light watering by water can.
- The beds should than is cover with dry straw or grass or sugarcane leaves to maintain require temperature and moisture.
- The watering should be done by water can as per the need till germination is complete.
- The cover of dry straw or grass is removing immediately after germination is complete.
- During the last week in nursery, the seedlings may be hardened by slightly withholding water.
- The seedlings are ready for transplanting within 4-6 weeks of planting when they attain a height of 15 cm with 2-3 true leaves.
Varieties of Brinjal Farming in India
- The crops varieties are Pusa Purple Long, Pusa Purple Cluster, Pusa Kranti, Pusa Barsati, Manjari Gota, etc are common cultivate Brinjal Varieties in Farming.
Growing Requirement in Brinjal Farming
- The brinjal is a warm season crop, therefore susceptible to severe frost.
- Low temperature during the cool season causes deformation of vegetables.
- A long and warm growing season is desirable for successful brinjal farming.
- Cool nights and short summers are not suitable for satisfactory production.
- A daily average temperature of 13 to 21 C is most favorable for optimum growth and yield.
- The brinjal seed germinates well 25 C.
- Rainfall is 600-1000mm and harvesting temperature is 25-30 C.
Suitable soil/Land Preparation in Brinjal Farming
- Brinjal is a hardy crop so it can be grown on a different type of soils.
- As it is a long duration crop, it requires well drain fertile sandy loam soil which is best suited for its cultivation and gives a good yield.
- For early crop light soil are good and for high yield clay loam, silt loam is suitable.
- For good growth ph of soil should be 5.5 to 6.6.
- Before transplanting the soil should be well prepared by deep plowing 4-5 times and leveled.
- When the field is well prepared and level, the beds of suitable size are made in the field before transplanting.
- Since the crop remains in the field for a number of months.
- Bulky organic manures like well rotten crowding or compost should be incorporated evenly on the soil.
- Thoroughly prepare the field with the addition of FYM 25 t/ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm.
- Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirllum and 2 kg/ha of Phosohobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of FYM.
- Irrigate the furrows and transplant 30-35 days old seedlings at 60 cm apart on the ridges.
Best Planting season for Brinjal Farming
- For the First crop, prepare the nursery in October and seedlings are ready for transplanting in November.
- The second crop, prepare the nursery in November and transplantation in the first fortnight of February.
- The third crop, sow nursery in February to March and transplantation before the end of April.
- The fourth crop, sow in a nursery in July and transplantation in August.
Spacing Between Plants in Brinjal Farming
- The spacing generally depends on the variety, size and spread and bearing period and soil fertility.
- In nursery sow seed at depth of 1 cm and then cover with soil.
- Transplantations of seedlings in main fields is a method of sowing.
- Use seed rate of 300-400 gm for preparing seedlings for one-acre land sowing.
Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Brinjal Farming
- Brinjal farming a long duration crop requires a good amount of manures and fertilizers for high yield.
- The fertilizer dose depends upon the fertility of soil and amount of organic manure apply to the crop.
- For a good yield, 15-20 tones of well decompose FYM is interrogated into the soil.
- Generally, application of 150 kg N, 100 kg P O and 50 kg K O is recommended for optimum yield.
- Half dose of N and a full dose of P and K is given at the time of planting.
- The balance half of N is given one and a half month after the first application and the final at three month and half months after transplanting.
- For hybrid varieties, the recommended dose is 200 Kg N, 100 kg P O and 100 kg K O.
- Out of this dose, 25 % of n and 100% of P and K is applying as a base does.
- Remaining 75% of P is applying in three equal split doses.
- The First split dose of N is applied 20 days after transplanting.
- The second dose of applying just before the onset of flowering while the third after the first harvesting.
- Nitrogen is applying 100 kg/ha in 5 to 6 split dose during the crop growing season through fustigation.
Water supply/Irrigation in Brinjal Farming
- Water the field as per the need of the crop.
- Timely irrigation is quite essential for good growth, flowering, fruit seating and development of fruits.
- Higher yield may be obtained at optimum moisture level and soil fertility conditions.
- In plains, irrigation should be applied every third to the fourth day during hot weather and every 7 to 12 days during winter.
- Irrigation is given before top dressing of there is no rain.
- The brinjal field should be regulated irrigated to keep the soil moist during frosty days.
Disease in Brinjal Farming
- Root Rot.
- Bacterial Soft Rot.
- Black Rot.
- Phytophthora Root Rot.
- Stem End Rot.
- Pepper Spot.
- Intercropping in any farming is available for extra income.
- Crop rotation with French bean reduces bacterial wilt incidence.
- For root-knot and reform nematode crop rotation should be done with nonhost crops like sorghum and wheat.
- Intercropping with marigold, onion, and garlic also recommended for nematode management.
Storage/Harvest in Brinjal Farming
- The brinjal fruits are harvest when they attain full size and color but before start ripening.
- Tenderness bright color and glossy appearance of fruit is the optimum stage of harvesting of fruits.
- When the vegetables look dull, it is an indication of maturity and loss of quality in brinjal farming.
- The yield varies from season to season, variety to variety and location to location.
- However, in general, 250 to 500q/ha of healthy vegetables of brinjal can be obtained from your brinjal farming.
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