Bitter Gourd Farming / Karela Farming
Contents in this Post
- Bitter Gourd Farming / Karela Farming
- Introduction of Bitter Groud Farming / Karela Farming
- How Can Bitter Groud Farming?
- Varieties of Bitter Gourd in India
- Growing Requirement in Bitter Groud Farming
- Suitable soil/Land Preparation for Bitter Groud Farming
- Best Planting season for Bitter Ground Farming
- Spacing Between Plants in Bitter Groud Farming
- Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Bitter Groud Farming
- Water supply/Irrigation in Bitter Groud Farming
- Disease in Karela Farming
- Storage/Harvest in Bitter Groud Farming
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Introduction of Bitter Groud Farming / Karela Farming
- Another name of Bitter Gourd is “Bitter melon” and is also known as “Karela” in Hindi.
- The botanical name of bitter gourd is Memordica charantia and it belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae.
- Bitter gourd is believed to be originating in tropical Asia, particularly in the Indo Burma Region.
- Bitter gourd is widely grown in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, China and tropical Africa.
- It is popularly known for its medicinal, nutritional and other excellent health benefits.
- Because of its high demand in the market, bitter gourd farming is done very successful.
- Bitter gourds are mainly use for making juice and for culinary purpose.
- Bitter gourd is use for cooking it when it is green or in yellow ripening stage.
- It has health benefits such as it helps in preventing blood disorders, detoxifies blood and liver, also other helps, etc.
- This vegetable is also use in herbal products.
- The taste of this vegetable is bitter due to the presence of momordicine.
Grown Areas of Bitter Groud Farming In India
- In India it is generally Bitter Groud Farming in all states.
- Mostly grown in Rajasthan, Bihar, Kolkata, Pune, Navsari, Indor and Latur.
Nutritive and Medical Value of Bitter gourd (Karela)
- These vegetables are low in Calories and excellent source of vitamins B1. B2, and B3, C, manganese, floate, magnesium, zinc, iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus and Beta-carotene.
- Bitter gourd has very high in dietary fiber as well.
- It contains a unique python-constituent that has been confirmed to have a hypoglycemic effect call “charioting”.
- In this vegetable, there is also another insulin-like compound known as polypeptide p which has been suggest as insulin alternative in some diabetic patients.
- Bitter gourd helps in preventing blood disorders.
- Bitter gourd helps in diabetes patient.
- It is good for eye health. Also boosts immune system.
- It is controls psoriasis.
- Bitter gourd helps in reducing hangover effect.
- Bitter gourd helps in weight control.
How Can Bitter Groud Farming?
- Prepare beds that are 20-cm-high during the dry season and 30 cm or higher during the wet season with a mixture of compost and NPK fertilizers, using a plow or mechanical bed shaper.
- The distance between centers of adjacent furrows should be about 150 cm with a 90-cm bed top.
- Sow 2-3 seeds per hole at a depth of 2 cm.
- Space holes 40-60 cm apart in rows space 1.2- 1.5 m apart.
- Thin to one seedling per hole when plants have four true leaves.
- Sow seeds in small plastic pots with a medium that drains well, such as peat moss, commercial potting soil, or a potting mix prepared from soil, Bitter gourd compost, rice hulls, vermiculite, peat moss and sand.
- Sow 2-3 seeds per pot and thin to a single seedling when they have four to six true leaves. Seedling pots should be placed on benches.
- Avoid touching the ground to prevent infection by soil-borne diseases and vulnerability to flooding.
- Use 50-60 mesh netting to enclose the nursery, to exclude insect pests.
- Transplant the disease-free and strong seedlings into raised beds when they are 10-15 cm tall.
- Staking and trellising will increase fruit yield and size, reduce fruit rot, and make spraying and harvesting easier.
- Apply NPK fertilizer during the growth and harvesting periods at two-week intervals.
- Bitter gourd will not tolerate drought.
- Maintain good soil moisture using furrow, trickle or drip irrigation.
Varieties of Bitter Gourd in India
- Shape and colure of bitter gourd is different from each country.
- There are many varieties like Co 1, MDU 1, Phule Ujwal, CoBgoH 1(Hybrid), Akra Harit, Konkan Tara, Priye, Hirkani, Priyanka and Preethi, Phule Green Gold are mainly cultive in India.
Growing Requirement in Bitter Groud Farming
- Bitter gourd requires a minimum temperature of 18°C during early growth.
- But optimal temperatures are in the range of 24-27°C.
- The plant is adapt to a wide variety of rainfall conditions, but regular irrigation is needed to ensure high yield.
- Bitter gourd tolerates a wide range of soil types but prefers a well-drained sandy loam soil that is rich in organic matter.
Suitable soil/Land Preparation for Bitter Groud Farming
- Bitter gourd can be grown on wide range of soils.
- However, Sandy loam soils rich in organic matter with good drainage and ph range of 6.5 to 7.0 is suit for bitter gourd cultivation.
- Land should be plough 2 or 3 times to make the soil fine-tilt and remove any weeds from previous crops.
- Seed rate depends on the variety grown and generally on an average 5 to 6 kg of seeds are require for 1 hectare land.
- Sandy soils with good organic matter and internal drainage are best for Dragon fruit farming.
Best Planting season for Bitter Ground Farming
- Fruit developing season of the bitter Gourd to plant is January to March and September to December months.
Spacing Between Plants in Bitter Groud Farming
- Seeds should be soaking for a day in solution of 25 to 50 ppm GA and 25ppm boron to enhance the germination.
- Pits with size of 60 cm diameter and 35 to 45 cm depth should be dug.
- Well-rotten farm yard manure and fertilizers should be mix with top-soil and 4 to 5 seeds are sown in the pit at 2.5 to 3 m depth.
- The seeds should be sown by dibbling method at a spacing of 1 meter * 1 meter.
- Unhealthy plants should be removing after 2 weeks and only 3 bitter gourd plants should be retain per each pit.
- Erect pandas when the plants start veining.
- Pandas have to be erecte at a height of 5 to 8 feet using G.I. wire and bamboo sticks.
- These pits should be filled with soil and compost with 100 grams of super phosphate.
Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in Bitter Groud Farming
- Proper, regular manure and nutrient application will result in good quality of fruits and higher yield.
- Supplement well-rotten farm yard manure of 25 tons per heaters land along with ½ dose of N, full dose of P205 and K20.
- The remaining half dose of N should be applied in several split doses at fort nightly intervals.
- 2 to 3 hoeing should be carried out to control the weeds during initial stages of plant growth.
- Conduct weeding operation and raking of the soil at the time of fertilizer application.
- Usually, arching up is done during rainy season.
Water supply/Irrigation in Bitter Groud Farming
- There are many irrigation systems are available in latest technology like drip irrigation, micro jet, sprinkler irrigation and basin irrigation but dragon fruit plant requires less water compared to other fruit farming.
- Irrigation should be carried out @ 3 to 4 days interval during the initial stages of plant vine growth.
- It is crucial to irrigate alternate days at the time of flowering and fruiting stage.
- Irrigate the vines on need base, It does not require any irrigation rainy season or when there is a sufficient moisture in the soil.
- In case of flooding or heavy water stagnation, make sure to drain out the water.
- In case of water problem areas, drip irrigation would be the best choice to utilize the water effectively.
Disease in Karela Farming
- Mites, It is avoid use for Spray dicofol 2.5 mi per liter of water.
- Aphid, Spray Lmidach loprid 0.5 ml/lit along with sufficient quantity of stickers like Teepol, triron X100, aspa etc. for better adhesion and coverage.
- Beetles, fruit flies are control by spraying Malathion 50 EC 1ml/lit.Powdery mildew is control by spraying Dinocap 1 ml/lit of water.
- Downy mildew control by spray Mancozeb or Chlorothalonil 2 grams/liter of water twice at 10 to 12 days interval.
Inter-cropping in Bitter Groud Farming
- It is not successfully with Bitter gourd fruit.
Storage/Harvest in Bitter Groud Farming
- The harvesting in bitter gourd farming starts from 60 to 65 days after sowing the seeds.
- Harvesting should be carried out when fruits are young and tender at every alternate day.
- Fruits should be harvest carefully without damaging the plant vine.
- It grown for seed purpose, they should not be allowing to ripe on the vines.
- The harvest bitter gourd can be store for 2 -3 days in cool conditions.
- In most of the crops, yield depends on the variety, soil type, climatic conditions and farm management conditions.
- In Bitter gourd farming an average yield of 65 to 100 quintal/ha can be obtain.
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