Contents in this Post
- Beetroot Farming
- Short Information on Beetroot Farming
- Introduction of Beetroot Farming
- Beetroot Grown Area in India
- Beetroot Farming Importance / Use of Beetroot
- Origin and distribution of Beetroot Farming
- Varieties of Beetroot
- Climate and Soil Requirement in Beetroot Farming
- Land preparation in Beetroot Farming
- Manures and fertilizers Requirements in Beetroot Farming
- Irrigation in Beetroot Farming
- Beetroot Farming Weed control
- Pest control in Beetroot Farming
- Disease control in Beetroot Farming
- Harvesting in Beetroot Farming
- Seed production in Beetroot Farming
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Short Information on Beetroot Farming
|Varieties||Ooty 1, Crimson Globe, Detroit Dark Red and Red Ball are the popular varieties.|
|Soil||It comes up well in all types of friable soils. The suitable soil pH is 6.0-7.0. It is considered to be a cool weather crop.|
|Season||It is planted during July – August|
|Seed rate||About 6 kg seeds are required for a hectare|
|Preparation of field||The land is ploughed to a fine tilth and ridges and furrows are formed at 30 cm apart.|
|Sowing||Sow the seeds directly in ridges at a spacing of 10 cm|
|Irrigation||Irrigate the field copiously immediately after sowing and afterwards as and when necessary.|
|Drip irrigation||Install the drip system with main and sub main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5 m. Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively. Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.|
|Application of fertilizers||Check in below|
|Spacing||30 x30 x10 cm as four rows in each paired row / raised bed system|
|After cultivation||After 20 days sowing, thinning is done to leave single seedling per hill.|
|Plant protection||Check Below|
Introduction of Beetroot Farming
- The Beetroot Farming is a true biennial, producing thickened root and a rosette of leaves during the first year and flowers and seeds the second year. Beetroots are mainly grown for their swollen roots but the leaves can also be eaten like spinach.
- Beetroots are widely grown in home gardens throughout the country.
- Beetroot Flowers are very small with a diameter of 3 to 5 mm and are produced in dense spikes. They are green or tinged reddish, with five petals.
- Beetroot fruit is a cluster of hard nutlets.
- In 2013, 250,191,362 metric tons of Beetroot was harvested. Russia was the largest producer with 39,321,161 metric tons of production. Worldwide, the average yield of the crop was 58.2 tons per hectare.
Beetroot Grown Area in India
- In India Beetroot is mainly cultivated in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, and Maharashtra.
Beetroot Farming Importance / Use of Beetroot
- The Beetroot contains 20% sugar, 5% pulp, and 75% water. The sugar of the Beetroot is of primary value and the pulp left after sugar extraction is used as animal feed. The byproducts of this crop include molasses and pulp and this adds a further 10% value to the cash crop.
- In many countries, Beetroot is used to make alcoholic beverages. Sugary syrup prepared from Beetroot is used as a sweetening spread in sandwiches and other food products.
- Beetroot is now a popular salad vegetable.
Origin and distribution of Beetroot Farming
- The beetroot is indigenous to Asia Minor and Europe. They were first used for food about the third century AD although they had been grown for thousands of years for medicinal purposes. Beetroot has been regarded as a laxative, a cure for bad breath, coughs and headaches, and even as an aphrodisiac. It is grown widely in Germany and France and in lesser amounts in other European countries, Africa, Asia, and South America.
Varieties of Beetroot
A few of the improved varieties popular in India are:
Detroit Dark Red:
- Roots perfectly round with smooth uniform deep red skin; flesh dark blood red with light red zoning; heavy yielder with a duration of 80-100 days.
- It produces round to flat round roots. The outer skin is medium red and flesh is crimson red without zonations; duration 55-60 days.
- Roots flat globular with dark red skin and dark red flesh and light red-zoning.
- This TNAU variety has round roots with blood-red flesh color; yields 28 t/ha in 120 days; it sets seeds under Nilgiris conditions.
- Roots flat globe with dark purplish red flesh; duration 55-60 days; produces white zoning under warm weather.
Climate and Soil Requirement in Beetroot Farming
- Beetroot is hardy to low temperature and prefers a cool climate. Though it grows in warm weather, development of color, texture, sugar content etc. of roots is the best under the cool weather. High temperature causes zoning i.e., the appearance of alternate light and dark red concentric rings in the root. An extremely low temperature of 4.5-10.0o C for 15 days will result in bolting. It requires abundant sunshine for the development of storage roots.
- Deep well-drained loam or sandy loams is the best for beetroot cultivation. Heavy clayey soils result in poor germination and stand of crop due to the formation of a soil crust after rains or irrigation. Roots may be misshaped and will not develop properly in heavy soils. Beetroot is highly sensitive to soil acidity and the ideal pH is 6-7. Beetroot is one of a few vegetables which can be successfully grown in saline soils.
Land preparation in Beetroot Farming
- Being a cool season crop, beetroot is raised during winter in plains and as a spring-summer crop in hills by March-April. In plains, sowing is practiced during SeptemberNovember. The land is plowed to a fine tilth by thorough plowing making it loose and friable. Clods are to be removed completely.
- Apply well-decomposed farmyard manure at the time of final plowing. Flatbeds or ridges and furrows are prepared. Water-soaked ‘seed balls’ which contain 2-6 seeds are drilled 2.5 cm deep in rows at a spacing of 45-60 x 8-10 cm. 5-6 kg of seeds is required for one hectare. Staggered sowing at 1-2 weeks interval ensures a steady supply of roots during the season.
Manures and fertilizers Requirements in Beetroot Farming
- Organic manure @ 25 t/ha is recommended for sandy soils.
Fertilization in Beetroot Farming
- A continuous apply of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium is essential throughout the season to obtain high yields and good quality.
- Nitrogen fertilizing is important and 300 to 400 kg/ha of limestone, ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate, depending on soil analyses, are applied in 2 or 3 dressings during the growing season.
- About 150 kg/ha of nitrogen is usually applied at planting time and the rest when the plants are about 10 to 15 cm high.
- A total of 500 to 600 kg/ha of superphosphate and 200 to 300 kg/ha of potassium chloride are applied just before sowing. Alternatively, a fertilizer mixture of 2:3:2 (22) at 1000 to 1200 kg/ha may be applied.
- It should be noted that these are general recommendations and actual amounts of fertilizers should be based on soil analyses. Soils heavily fertilized with coarse compost and kraal manure encourage the formation of side roots, making the crop unattractive.
Irrigation in Beetroot Farming
- The soil should never be allowed to become dry and it should be kept moist to a depth of 20 to 25 cm.
- The plantings should receive light water applications daily until the young seedlings come up. About 30 mm of water should be supplied per irrigation.
- Large fluctuations in soil moisture content will result in poor quality roots that are malformed and have many small hairs or side roots.
Beetroot Farming Weed control
- Weeds must be controlled before they can compete with beet seedlings and interfere with their growth. All weeds between the rows must be removed by hand to avoid damaging the roots.
- Weed control can also be achieved chemically by applying herbicides and instructions on the container should be thoroughly followed.
Pest control in Beetroot Farming
Aphids (Aphis fabae)
- Aphids are dark brown or green insects about 2 mm in length. They suck on the lower surface of the leaves and damage is only done when the numbers increase substantially. Infested leaves are curly and rolled.
- CONTROL: Use registered chemicals. Crop rotation can also assist. registered g p chemicals. Crop rotation can also assist
Red spider (Tetranychus cinnabarinus)
- These are small dark red or dark brown spiders about 1 mm long. They suck on the lower surface of the leaves. Their numbers are usually low but can increase rapidly during warm weather.
- Leaves are mainly eaten in summer and in the crop grown for seed.
Disease control in Beetroot Farming
Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora beticola)
This is a common disease in beetroots caused by a fungus which enters the leaves and causes small round spots of about 3 mm in diameter.
These spots are also found on the flowers and seed on plants grown for seed production. The spots are at first brown with a dark purple border and later turn grey in the center.
The tissue in the center falls as the spots age.
- Crop rotation
- Seed treatment with registered chemicals
- Avoiding overwatering
Downy mildew (Peronospora schachtii)
- The disease is seed-borne and it can affect the crop early in the season.
- Leaves of infected plants partly or completely turn yellow and curl downwards. The diseased patches later turn brown.
- A grey fungal growth can be seen on the underside of the leaves. Flowers and the crown can also be infected.
Brown rust (Uromyces betae)
- Infected plants are recognized by large numbers of orange or red-brown pustules on the leaves.
- Control measures are not necessary y since the disease seldom causes any damage.
Scab (Actinomyces scabies)
- The beetroots infected with scab develop rough, irregular, surface scabs. The disease is prevalent in soils containing too much lime.
- Soil analysis to determine a level of lime and get advice on that.
Root rot, damping-off (Phoma betae)
- The disease is common on the compact soil. Germination of infected plants is weak. Young seedlings grow poorly, turn yellow, wilt, topple over and die and the roots turn black. Seedlings that are not severely affected produce small, malformed beetroots.
- Seed should only be sown in soils with a good structure.
- Seed should be treated with thiram.
- Practice crop rotation.
- The crop should not lack sufficient boron.
- Planting should be at the right time and not too deep.
- This is caused by boron deficiency. Heart rot is characterized by black marks on the root surface and cracks. Black blotches are visible in the flesh if the beetroot is cut open.
- It is advisable to plant resistant cultivars.
Harvesting in Beetroot Farming
- Medium sized tubers are of great demand and tubers are harvested after attaining a diameter of 3-5 cm. Harvesting is done 8-10 weeks after sowing by pulling the top with hand. Later tops are removed, graded and marketed.
- In European countries, where small-sized bunches are in demand, tubers are tied in bundles of 4-6 with their tops. Over matured and oversized tubers become woody and crack. Yield varies from 25 to 30t/ha and the tuber stores well at 0o C and 90% RH.
Seed production in Beetroot Farming
- Unlike other root crops, annual tropical types do not exist in beetroot. All cultivars in beetroot are temperate biennial types and seed production is possible in hills 1400 m above mean sea level.
- A low temperature of 4.4 to 7.7o C for 6-8 weeks is required for flowers to initiate. A usual method of seed production is root to seed method. In this method, seeds are sown in July and well-developed roots are dug out during November-December.
- After selection of root tubers, a top is trimmed without injuring crown. Then whole tubers of selected plants are transplanted at a spacing of 60 x 45-60 cm in well-prepared fields and irrigated. Harvesting is done during June-July.
- Cross-pollination is due to self-incompatibility. Being a cross-pollinated crop, that too wind pollinated, provide an isolation distance of 1000 m for certified seed production and 1600 m for breeder and nucleus seed production. Average seed yield is 2.0 t/ha.
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