Banana Farming Information Guide
Contents in this Post
- Banana Farming Information Guide
- Banana Farming Grown Areas:-
- Nutritive and Medical Value of Banana:-
- How Can Grow…?
- Varieties of Banana in India:
- Growing Requirement in Banana Farming:
- Banana Farming Suitable soil/Land Preparation:
- Best Planting season of Banana Farming:
- Spacing Between Banana Plants:
- Disease in Banana Cultivation:
- Banana Farming is one of the major and economically important fruit crops of India.
- 20% area among the total area under crop in India.
- Most of Banana is grown by planting suckers. The technology development in agriculture is very fast, it results in developing Tissue Culture Technique.
- Other than fresh fruits, it can be consume as process in various forms like chips, powder, flakes, etc.
Banana Farming Grown Areas:-
- In India it is generally cultivate in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, and Bihar.
Nutritive and Medical Value of Banana:-
- In Banana, 11% of Vitamin C, 9% of Potassium, 33% of Vitamin B6, 8% of Magnesium, 10% of Copper, 1,3 grams of Protein, 0.4 grams Fat and 3.1 grams of Fiber.
- Bananas are rich in potassium and fiber.
- Also of note, it is helpful for Cancer, asthma, High blood Pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular, disease and digestive problems.
- Eating Banana several times a week may reduce the risk of kidney disease by up to 50%.
How Can Grow…?
- Planting of banana is done by two methods viz. Pit method and furrow method.
- Banana is a heavy feeder and responds well to manuring. Also it is quick growing and short-lived plant.
- In India application of 100 g of N, 30 g of P2O5 and 300g of k2o per plant to be supply in threes doses during the second, third and fifth months is recommend.
- You can acquire a banana sucker from another grower or plant nursery or buy one online.
Varieties of Banana in India:
- Banana varieties cultivate in different states of India are Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali, G-9,Basrai, Shrimati, Red Banana, Matti.
Growing Requirement in Banana Farming:
- Being a tropical crop, banana requires warm, humid and rainy climate.
- The optimum temperature range is 10 to 40 C and relative humidity is 90% or above.
- It is highly susceptible to frost and cannot tolerate arid conditions.
- The optimum range of ph of soil should be 6 to 8.
- Soil for banana should have good drainage, adequate, fertility and moisture.
- High velocity of wind which exceeds 80 km/hr. damages the crop.
- Four months of monsoon with an average 650-750 mm. rainfall are requires to growth of banana tree.
Banana Farming Suitable soil/Land Preparation:
- Banana farming, soil have good drainage, adequate fertility and moisture.
- Deep, rich loamy soil with ph between 6-7.5 is most prefer for banana cultivation.
- Ill drained, poorly and nutritionally deficient soils are not suitable for banana.
- Saline solid, calcareous soil is not suitable for Banana cultivation.
- Avoid soil of low laying areas, very sandy and heavy black cotton with ill drainage.
- The land can be ploughed 2-4 times and level.
- During soil Preparation basal done of FYM is add and mix into the soil.
- A pit size of 45 cm *45 cm* 45 cm is normally use.
- The pits are to be refill with topsoil mix with 10 kg of FYM, 250 gm of Neem cake and 20 gm of conbofuron.
- A prepare pit are left to solar radiation helps in killing the harmful insects, is effective against soil borne diseases and aids aeration.
- Adding of some organic matter helps in reducing salinity while addition of purity improves porosity and aeration.
Best Planting season of Banana Farming:
- Planting of tissue culture banana can be done throughout the year as per the market demand except when the temperature is too low or too high.
- There are two seasons in India are June-July and October-November.
Spacing Between Banana Plants:
Now a Mostly Use a tissue culture Plant For planting , Many more benefit compare Regular plantation .
- Pit planting is commonly follow in garden system of cultivation.
- A pit size of 0.5* 0.5* 0.5m is normally use. Small pits are dug in case of ridges and furrows.
- The suckers are plant in the center of the pit and soil around is compact.
- Plants are plant in the pits keeping 2cm below the ground level.
- Soil around the plant is press. Deep planting is avoid.
- The field is irrigate immediately after planting.
- Furrow planting is practice in annual planting system in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra.
Banana Farming Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements in :
- Banana requires high amount of nutrients, which are often supply only in part by the soil.
- Nutrient requirement has been on all India basis is to be 2o kg FYM, 200 gm N, 60-70 gm P, 300 gm K/plant.
- Banana crop require 7-8 kg N, 0-7-1.5 kg P and 17-20 kg K per metric tons yield.
- In order to avoid loss of nutrients from conventional fertilizers i.e. loss of N through leaching, Volatilization, evaporation and loss of P and K by fixation in the soil, application of water soluble or liquid fertilizers through drip irrigation is encourage.
- A 25-30% increases in yield is observe using fustigation.
Water supply/Irrigation in Banana Farm:
- Banana being a succulent, evergreen and shallow root crop requires large quantity of water for increasing productivity.
- Water requirement of banana has been work out to be 1,800-2,000 mm per year.
- In winter, irrigation is provide at an interval of 7-8 days while in summer it should be at an interval 4-5 days
- However, during rainy season irrigation is provide if require as excess irrigation will lead to root zone congestion due to removal of air from soil pores, thereby affecting plant establishment and growth.
- In all, about 70-75 irrigation are provide to the crop.
- Banana production should be support by an efficient irrigation system like drip irrigation.
Disease in Banana Cultivation:
- Panama Wilt
- Bunchy Top
- Root stock weevil
- Shoot Rot
- Root system of banana is superficial and gets easily damage by cultivation.
- Therefore, use of intercrop is not desirable.
- However short duration crops like mung, cowpea, and daincha are to be consider as green manuring crops.
- Banana is harvest when the fruit is slightly or fully mature depending on the market preferences.
- For long distance transportation, harvesting is done at 75-80% maturity.
- The fruit is climacteric and can reach consumption stage after ripening operation.
- The plant crop gets ready to harvest within 12-15 months of planting. Like month of harvesting is from September to April.
- Signs of maturity of banana fruits are, fruit becomes plumy and angles are fill in completely,
When tap gives metallic sound, drying off of top leaves and change in color of fruits from deep green to light green.