Apricot Fruit Farming

By | July 15, 2018

Apricot Fruit Farming All Details

This information Guide for Apricot Fruit Farming , We cover all the information about Apricot Fruit farming.

  • Apricot is an important fruit grown in the dry temperate and mid hill regions of India.
  • Apricot Tree belongs to the family of Rosecrans and Genus of Prunus.
  • The Apricots fruit are native to china whereas known Zardalu is indigenous to India.
  • In India apricots fruit grown in mostly hills of Shimla and Himachal Pradesh.
  • Apricot fruits contain high in vitamin A and niacin when compare to other fruits.
  • Apricots fruits are use in jam, desserts, squash and fruit can be dry and canny.
  • The commercial apricot farming in India is very limited.
  • Apricot fruit tree is a between 8m to 12m tall with a trunk up to 40cm in diameter, and a dense canopy.
  • The leaves are egg shape, 5cm to 9cm long, and 4cm to 8cm wide.
  • The flowers between 2cm and 4-5 cm in diameter, with five white to pinkish petals, they are producing singly or in pairs.
  • The Apricots trees need a compatibly cold winter below 7,2 C. for proper dormancy and development.
    It does best under irrigation.
  • Apricot tress are fairly disease resistant and do not respond well to fertilizers.
  • Fertilizers encourage weak growth and make tress more susceptible to disease and insects.
  • Good News those Apricots strees are like full sun, hot dry summers and cool to cold weather.
    Fruits will crack under humid conditions.

Apricot Fruit farming

Grown Areas of Apricot Fruit In India:-

  • In India, Apricot fruit is grown commercially in the hills of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and to a limited in north eastern hills.
  • Also dry type apricots fruit are grown in the dry temperate like Kinnaur and Lahaul Spiti in Himachal Pradesh and Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir.

Nutritive and Medical Value of Apricot Fruit:-

  • A 1 cup serving of slice apricots’ provides about 79 calories and 3.3 grams of fiber.
  • The Mayo clinic recommends that women age 50 or younger consume 25 grams of fiber a day; Men aged 50 younger should consume 38 grams per day.
  • Apricot fruit are rich in vitamin A which is also known as retinol.
  • It is fat soluble, and helps in the enhancement of vision and other things.
  • Also protecting your skin in the immune system.
  • Apricot fruit eat it dry or fresh both, apricot fruit are a good source of fiber.
  • Apricot is a fat soluble, the fruit dissolves in the body easily and the important nutrients are easily absorbed by the system.
  • It helps to reduce the bad cholesterol content in the body that means your heart is protect.
  • Also increase the good cholesterol.
  • Apricots fruit is natural source of antioxidants. It helps the body to get rid of toxins that we collect over time.
  • It is good for Blood, used to produce iron.
  • Apricot fruit is combination of vitamin C, A and phytonutrients ensures good skin.
  • Apricot fruit uses increase your metabolism and improve your digestive system.
  • Calcium is much requiring in the development of bones and apricot fruit has lots of it.
  • Potassium is also available in apricot fruit.
  • Apricot Kernel Oil is rich in vitamin K, It is use reduce dark circles.
  • It also contains vitamin E and omega 6 fatty acids with Vitamin K, good for skin.
  • It is use nourish skin deeply, allow the nutrients to penetrate the surface of your skin and reach the blood cells.

How Can Apricot Fruit Farming …?

  • Apricots tresses thrive in well drain loam soil at least 1,5m deep.
  • Mostly intra row space is between 5m to 6m while inter row space should be 4m.
  • Apricots are commercially propagated by grafting or budding.
  • Multiplying through cuttings is rarely done.
  • Wild Apricot and wild peach seedlings are generally use as a rootstock.
  • The graft union on wild apricot is good and then trees are then on plum or peach.
  • For raising the footstock, seeds are collect form fully ripe fruits of wild apricots.
  • Apricots seeds require for a period of 45-50 days at 4 C to break dormancy.
  • The germination of seeds can also be hasten by soak the seeds for 24 hours in 500 ppm GA3 or 5ppm Kinetin solution before sowing.
  • The prepare seeds are sown 6-10 cm deep in well prepare nursery beds at a distance of 15-20 cm from seed to seed in rows 25-30 cm apart.
    After sowing the beds are mulch with 6-10 cm thick grass and light watering is applied.
  • Mostly Tongue grafting, T-budding and Chip budding use.
  • The seedlings of pencil thickness are graft with tongue method in February; use of this result is good success.
  • After one month of bud take, the tying material should be removing.
  • Aftercare of graft plant like single stemming, staking, weeding, watering and plant protection measures checks at regular time.
  • Application of farmyard manure 80 tons/ha and 30 kg/ha of P2 O5 is good for better growth of apricot Tree.
  • Apricot is planted the dormant season, but early planting gives better development of plants.
  • Pits of 1m* 1m* am size are dug a month before planting.
  • They are filling with a mixture of soil and decompose farmyard manure. Quantity of decompose farmyard manure between 50 to 60 kg.
  • 1 kg single super phosphate and 10 ml chorapyripos solution is add to each pit.
    On flat land, a regular layout system like a square or triangular is follow while on the hill slopes, contour system is use.
  • Mostly space between plants depends on the soil, climate and cultivar.
  • The plants are generally plant at a distance 6m* 6m.
  • Due to the absence of the dwarfing rootstock, high density planting is still to be standardizing with proper training and pruning system and with the use of growth retardants.
  • One year old, healthy and disease plants are plant in the middle off the pit.
  • The soil is press gently to the roots is set.
  • Water is applied immediately to establish connect between roots and soil.
  • After planting apricot tree basin is mulch with 10cm thick hay mulch to conserve soil moisture.
  • In summer watering should be done as and when require.
  • Apricot fruit tree is train to open vase and modify center leader system of training, through the open vase system of training is more popular in the hilly regions.
  • At the time of planting, one year old whip is head back at about60-70 cm above the ground and 3-5 well spend shoots are allow to grow in directions.
  • Pruning is more important in first dormant season because the framework develop in this period angles like 45’, well space like 10-15 cm apart and spirally arrange around the tree trunk are select.
  • Apricot tree lowest branch should be 40-45 cm above the ground level.
  • All the primary scaffold branches are head back of half of their growth to get the secondary branches on them.
  • During second season pruning, 5-7 well space scaffold branches are select on each primary branch and other are remove.
  • At the end of third year, pruning is confine to the thin of branches which are either overcrowding or crossing each other.
  • For proper development of the framework and to admire adequate sunlight in the tree canopy.
  • Apricot bears on spurs and laterally on one year old shoots.
  • The spurs have a short life of 3-4 years.
  • Many of them are also broken during fruit plucking.
  • The production of young growth is essential the initiation of new spurs which generally takes place at the bases of the growing laterals.
  • In young bearing apricot trees pruning should be light and of corrective type but in older apricot tress heavy pruning should be done to maintain balance between growth and fruiting.
  • Apricot fruit 25-30% thinning of one year old then to improve fruit size and quality.
  • After pruning Chaubattia paste is apply on the cut ends of the shoots.
  • Apricot trees live between 40-150 years according to the Urban Forest Ecosystems Institute at Calpoly at San Luis Obispo.
    Though apricot trees live this long, they usually do not produce fruit for their entire lives.
  • Apricots typically fruit for only 20 to 25 years.
  • After this the tree may still be ornamental but do not expect it to regularly bear fruit.

Varieties of Apricot Fruit in India:

  • Apricot fruit varieties in India are different in states.
  • Himachal Pradesh: In High hills varieties are Kaisha, Royel, Suffaida, Nugget and Nari. While Mid hills varieties like New Castle, Early Shipley and Shakapara.
  • Uttar Pradesh: Apricot fruit varieties are Charmagaz, Turkey, Madhu, Bebeco, Ambroise, Alankar, and Kaisha.
    Apricot Fruit in Hindi call Khumani. Other name is Jardaloo, Khubani, Jaldharu Pandu.

Growing Requirement of Apricot Plants:

  • Apricot Fruit can be successfully grown at an altitude between 900 to 2,000m above to ground sea level.
    White flesh, sweet kernel apricot require cooler climate and are grown in dry temperature region up to 3000m above mean ground sea level.
  • Yellow flesh, bitter kernel ones thrive better under the warmer climate of mid hills like 900-1500 ,the long cool winter 300-900 chilling hours below 7 C and frost free and warm spring are suitable for fruiting.
  • Summer temperature is suitable 16-33 C for good growth and quality for Apricot fruit production.
  • The sites locate in north eastern India at lower elevations and on south western at higher elevations are suitable for Apricot fruit development.
  • Spring frost affects extensive damage to the blossoms, its kill when temperature falls down 4 C.
  • Apricots Fruit better under low humidity as high humid conditions in summer.
  • An annual rainfall of about 100cm well for the season is good fruits normal growth and fruiting.
    It is difficult, to grow in most of the soils but deep fertile and well drain loamy soil are suitable for its growth and development.
  • The ph of soil is 6.0 to 6.8.
  • Ladakh and Kinnaur, large wild apricots tree grow in sandy well drain and less fertile soil.
  • When starting large production of an Apricot Fruits, Large scale area has to be select.
  • Therefore start weed and unwanted plants are removing from the land.
  • Then Soil has to be plough several times.
  • Plough must be done at the soil is smooth enough.
  • After ploughing the leveling and harrowing must be done.
  • After the last plough, the Farmyard manures mix with soil if it is possible.
  • Drainage channels can be providing to the land so the water can drain out.

Fertilizers and Nutrition requirements for Apricot fruit farming:

  • Apricot removes a large quantity of nutrients from the soil.
  • Apricot Tree requires both Organic manures and Chemical fertilizers.
  • The manorial requirement depends upon age of tree, type of soil, climatic condition and care.
  • Also it is vary from region to region because all the regions different types.
  • For mature trees like 7 years old or more apricot fruit plant require a mixtures of 40 kg farmyard manure, 500gN, 250 g P2 O5 and 200g K is use.
  • The Farmyard manure applies mostly December to January with full dose of P and K.
  • Also Nitrogen is apply; it is apply in different 2 doses.
  • First is half 2-3 weeks before flowering and then half a month later.
  • Under rain fed conditions the second half dose of N should be apply at the onset of monsoon.
  • Otherwise 1 or 2 foliar sprays of urea after fruit set.
  • Fertilizer should be broadcast on the soil surface of the trees and mix with steep slopes.
  • Nitrogenous fertilizers prefer over broadcasting.
  • In apricot orchards application of Atrazineor Diuron 4.0 kg/ha as pre-emer-gence and Gramaxone 2 liters/ha or Glyphosate 800 ml/ha as post emergence is quite affect and use control weeds.
  • Mulching tree basins with 10-15 cm thick dry grass also checks weed growth.
  • Fruit set in Apricot is rather heavy which results under size fruit and increase bearing.
  • Fruit thinning improves fruit size, promotes regular bearing, decreases breakage and maintains the apricot tree vigor.
  • Starting within 40 days after full bloom.
  • Its mean last week of April or starting of May.
  • Both Hand and Chemical thinning methods are applied.
  • Depend upon the crop load the fruit may be thinner till the fruits are 6-10cm apart.
  • A super should not have more than 2 fruits.
  • Foliar spray of 20-50 ppm NNA 20 days after fruit set is ideal for thinning.

Water supply/Irrigation in Apricot fruit farming:

  • Though Apricot is tolerant to dry atmosphere, it requires irrigation especially during critical periods of apricot fruits growth and development.
  • Water is need depends on the soil, apricot tree age, climatic conditions and irrigation methods.
  • The water require occurs is from April end to mid June, which consider with apricot fruit development time.
  • Irrigation at 20% depletion of soil moisture from field capacity improves fruit size and yield.
  • Apricot trees watering at 10 days intervals during May and 6-8 during June.
  • In Himachal Pradesh require 8 irrigations in a season for better size and quality of apricot fruits.
  • Hay Mulch and Black plastic mulch is helpful.
  • The well root apricot trees do not need to be more water unless during very dry periods.
  • They resist moderate periods of drought.
  • Under Rough drought circumstance they can drop their buds.
  • Main advice is water is need to First year is properly then the watering are apply in intervals depends on the growth of the Apricot Tress.

 

Inter-cropping in Apricot Fruit Farming:

  • Inter-cropping is way of extra income.
  • Apricot Trees with other plants planted is easily.
  • Apricot Tree growing 2-4 years after that intercropping is starting.
  • Like Pea, Bean, Soybeans and Cowpea are best with Apricot Tree.
  • Also main advantage is intercropping is enrich the soil.

Storage/Harvest:

  • First of think how can you tell when apricot is ripe??
  • Firstly the fruit is soft but not too soft otherwise it may be overripe.
  • Consider when you plant to eat or cook the apricots and check the firm or soft.
  • Main advice it is higher in sugar, dried fruit can be bad for your dental health if you eat too much.
  • Reduce your risk of cavities by consuming dry fruit at mealtimes, rather than as a snack and either rinsing with water or brushing your teeth immediately after eating.
  • Apricot fruits mostly grown proper during first week of May-June end depending upon variety and location.
  • They are harvest manually and no mechanical harvest is practice.
  • Change of surface color, days from full bloom to harvest and fruit TSS are consider as the best indices of maturity.
  • For fresh marketing fruits should be pluck when they change their surface color from green to yellow.
  • Fully ripe fruits are harvest for freezing, canning and drying.
  • In Himachal Pradesh days full bloom to harvest and fruit TSS have been standardize to judge time for different varieties.
  • Apricot fruits are go bad quickly so be careful during harvesting, packing and transportation.
  • One important advice apricot fruit harvest in morning hours.
    Also avoid direct sun light during packing of Apricot fruit.
  • Apricot tress starts fruiting at the age of 5 years almost and continues up to 30 to 35 years.
  • They attend full beaming age at 7-10 years, yielding 50-80 kg/tree.
  • When you pack fruits are grade according to their size.
  • Always Apricot Fruits are packing in wooden boxes or CFB cartons.
  • Each box is line inside with newspaper sheets keeping the margins for overhanging the flaps.
  • The boxes are pad with pine needles at the bottom to avoid the brushing of fruits.
  • Also do not skip the wrapping of Individual Apricot Fruits.
  • Also Fruits are arrange in the box n layers. Then last top layer is cover by the paper because fruits are not overhanging flaps.
  • Small size CFB cartons also use for packing apricots fruits.
  • CFB cartons are lighter in weight, easy to handle and in packing coz of Transportation.
  • The fruits collect better price because of lesser brushing damage.
  • Use of wooden boxes is light more expensive but protection is need form direct rains.
  • Apricot Fruits are perishable so they can be store at 0 C for 1-2 weeks with 85-95% humidity.
  • Apricot Fruits are perishable nature so very short time storage life of fruits.
  • So Apricot fruits are market in the local markets and nearby cities very soon.
  • Mostly the Farmers are produce by the orders of contractors.
  • Then this fruits send the nearby markets and order places.
  • Large productions of Apricot fruits are directly to the markets.

 

Diseases in Apricot Fruit Farming:

Diseases in Apricot Fruit Farming

Rust: A disease cause primarily by fungi of the genus Puccini and Melampsora, which use the excess humidity to thrive. It means as spots of orange or brown on the leaves. Then a yellow color in the part of the beam.

Moniliosis or Flower Blight: This is affect flowers that dry. Also produce a blacking of the fruits that are dry on the branches without falling. Apricot tree is infecting by the appearance of cankers on the branches and the sticky liquid oozing out of some parts of the plants.

Powdery Mildew: This Disease is cause by fungus or Podosphaea Sphaerotheca rate. The first attacks the fruit in summer and leaves in spring. It is produce by white spider web on fruits, leaves and stems. Over time these stains by infection with order plants that keep fungus in the winter and spread their spoors in spring.

Watering the tree itself will help prevent the disease because the water may be able to clean the spores.
In some location using a biological fungicide call AQ10.

It is the parasitic fungus Ampelomyces quisqualis that feeds at the expense of podosphaera.
Do not use sulfur on Apricot tress.

Gummosis: It is a gummy substance oozing from the bark. Also causes from diseases to excessive pruning, failure of any component in the substrate, adverse weather conditions, injuries etc.

In many cases the gumming is an adaptation of the plant itself that covers wounds to prevent invasion of external agents.

To avoid such an event  sought and address the cause that produce it.

Eutipiosis: Most common disease also attacks the vine are often sudden fractures of branches in old trees and the sudden wilting leaves.

It is a cause that produces gummier in the wounds heal pruning.

Around the same is in general a lot of resin oozing chancre.
Then this disease center of the plant and ends up killing her.

Try to do the pruning day days to prevent the growth of these fungi and seek to reduce pruning old tress.
The solution is to use a fungicide paint that covers the injuries on the tree after pruning.

Peach Blight: It is affects by the almond and peach trees but sometime affects in the plum and apricots Tress.

It is produce by Fusicoccum amygdale that cause brown and elongate cankers’ at the base of the knots and yolks branches of the year, lead to the strangling of them and then death by the action of the toxins of the fungus.
Also attacks the leaves large brown spots.

Infection occurs through spores spread by rain penetrating wounds more or less large each of the parts of the plant or directly the young trees.
The solution of this disease removes the affect part of the plant and the use of Fungicides.

Pests :

Sliver Leaf: Leaves develop a slivery sheen, cut branches revel red staining. Prune from the end of June until the end of August or in rarely spring. Keep pruning cuts to a minimum, pruning regularly so cut surfaces are small.

Bacterial Canker: This disease occurs of sunken, dead areas of bark often accompany by gummy ooze. It can kill off entire branches. Also burn or landfill the pruning.

Glasshouse red spider: Leaves become mottle, pale and cover in webbing on which the mitts can be clearly seen, leaves also drop prematurely. Use biological control in the greenhouse.

Birds: Birds in Pigeons mostly affects the apricot fruits. It can cause an array of problems including eating seedlings, buds, leaves, fruits and vegetables. Avoid this problem by protect the plants from birds by covering netting.

Drills: These are a worm’s type. It is attack by drill device galleries that trace the host trees.

Big-headed Worm: It is a pest that affects many fruit trees. The main damages are cause by the larvae that build galleries in weakling the plant roots which eventually die.
To avoid this pest use as biological traps feronomas.

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